:

:

:

5

1.

7

1.1. 8
1.1.1. 8
1.1.2. 10
1.1.3. 10
1.1.4. 11
1.1.5. - 12
1.2. 13
1.2.1. 13
1.2.2. 13
1.2.3. 13
1.2.4. 13
1.3. 23
1.4. - 28
1.5. 29

2.

38
2.1. 39
2.1.1. 39
2.1.2. 41
2.2. 41
2.2.1. 42
2.2.2. 42
2.3. 42
2.3.1. 43
2.3.2. 43
2.3.3. , 45
2.3.4. 45
2.3.5. 46
2.4. 52
2.4.1. 54
2.4.2. 59

3.

63
3.1. 65
3.2. 66
3.3.

20

66
3.4. 68
3.5. 68
3.5.1. 68
3.5.2. 68
3.5.3. 73
3.5.4. 75
3.5.5. 78
3.5.6. 85
3.5.7. 86
3.5.8. 88
3.5.9. 90
3.5.10. 94
3.5.11. 99
3.5.12. - 99
3.5.13. 101
3.5.13.1. 101
3.5.13.2. 101
3.5.13.3. 105
3.5.13.4. 105
3.6. , 105
3.6.1. 105
3.6.2. 106
3.6.3. 106
3.6.4. 108
3.6.5. 109
3.7. 109

4.

113
4.1. 115
4.2. - 115
4.3. 116
4.4. 117
4.5. 123

5.

-

124
125
5.1. 139
5.1.1. 139
5.1.2. 139
5.1.3. 140
5.1.4. 142
5.1.5. 142
5.1.6. 143
5.1.7. 143
5.2. 145
5.3. - 149

6.

150
6.1. 151
6.2. . . 152
6.3. - , 154
6.3.1. 154
6.3.2. 155
6.3.3. 155
6.3.4. - 155
6.4. 156
6.4.1. , 156
6.4.2. , 157
6.4.3. 157
6.5. 157
6.6. 158
6.7. , 160
6.7.1. 160
6.7.2. 161
6.7.3. 161
6.7.4. 162
6.7.5. - 162
6.7.6. 163

7.

164
7.1. 165
7.2. 166
7.3. 167

8.

170
8.1. 171
8.2. 174
8.3. 176
8.4. 179

9.

-

180
190

.

.

. - 1.4 ; 5.5 .

, , , , , -, .

, , , .

.

. . .

() , .

, , .

- . .

() . : , - -600 , . - 5, - , .

() . (Q = 13775.72 3/) (Q = 38083.6 3/) .

(, , -, ) , ().

: , , , - , - .

: , .

.

蒒 .

.

13 , - 1.7 ./3.

- ., EXCEL MS Office.



1.1. .

1.1.1. .

8003/. . :

Q * K * 1000

q= ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾, /, (1.1)

T * 3600

Q - , 3/;

    - , ;

    T - , .

:

n * N

q = ¾¾¾¾, 3/, (1.2)

1000

n - , [2];

    Np - , .

:

n1*Np

q = ¾¾¾, /, (1.3)

1000

n1 - , [2].

:

 

nq * t * N

Q = ¾¾¾¾¾, 3/, (1.4)

1000

nq - , [2];

    t - ;

    N - , , , .

:

Np * p

n = ¾¾¾, (1.5)

b

p - , ;

    b - , .

[2] :

q = 0.2 * N = 0.2*15 = 3/, (1.6)

1.1, - 1.2.

:

1.1

, Q, 3/

, T,

K

, q, /

1 300 8 1.5 15.6
2 300 8 1.5 15.6
3 200 8 1.5 12.5

, 15.6/.

:

1.2

. .. ..

Np,

.

N

n

Q

/

n1

q, /

n, /

Q

/

q, /

Q

/

q, /

1

1

100

50

15

25

45

2.5

2.25

9.4

14.1

0.26

0.06

500 5.6 3 10.4 3.3

1

1

100

50

15

25

45

2.5

2.25

9.4

14.1

0.26

0.06

500 5.6 3 10.4 3.3

1

1

100

50

15

25

45

1.75

1.35

9.4

14.1

0.18

0.12

500 3.7 3 6.8 3.3

, : q=18.92/.

1.1.2. .

.

303/.

:

Q * 1000 30 * 1000

q..= ¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.35/.

T * 3600 24 * 3600

25 1.4.

1.1.3. .

3 . (1.8).

:

N1 * n

q= ¾¾¾¾, /, (1.7)

t1 * 60

N1 - t1 .

1.3.

:

1.3

. . n, /.

Q, 3/

T1, t1, .

max

q, /

1 . 9 9000 81 16 . 1.40
1 . 2 200 0.4 1 . 0.06
1 . 2 1700 3.4 10 . 2.83
1 20 4000 80 15 . 8.88

, 1.4

:

1.4

. - -
. n

. . n1

Q,

/

qmax,

/

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1,2,3 1 .. 25 500 ¾ 18.76 5
. . 1,2,3 1 . 150 25 9.4 11.25 0.39
. 1 25 100 10.4 2.5 0.07

1.1.5. .

54000 .

:

n * N

Q.. = ¾¾¾, 3/c, (1.8)

1000

n - , n = 280 / ;

N - , .

250 * 54000

Q . = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 13500 3/.

1000

:

n * N

q.. = ¾¾¾¾ , /, (1.9)

24 * 3600

250 * 54000

q.. = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 156.25 /,

24 * 3600

1.1.6. - .

- (, , , -, , ), , . .

- :

n * N

Q = ¾¾¾¾, 3/, (1.10)

1000

n - , ; [2];

N -  .

:

n1 * N

q = ¾¾¾, /. (1.11)

3600

N -  .

- , 1.5

- :

1.5

- . .

,

N

N

n

n1

Q,

/c

q,

3/

q,

/

1 1 12 1300 108 16 16 21 1.7 0.48
2 1. 12 750 63 180 180 135 11.3 3.15
3 .- 1.. 12 4000 333 16 16 64 5.3 1.48
4 1 . 16 1500 94 75 75 113 7.1 1.96
5 1 8 200 200 10 0.9 2 0.2 0.05
6 1 1 6 1500 1500 20 2.7 30 4.1 1.13
7 2 1 6 2000 2000 20 2.7 40 5.4 1.5

1.2. .

1.2.1. .

. . .

. , . . , - .

1.2.2. .

:

1)  :

h = h - a = 1.4 - 0.3 = 1.1 ; (1.12)

2)  :

h = 0.7 + d = 0.7 + 0.2 = 0.9; (1.13)

3)  :

h = h + i * L + z1 - z2 + D, , (1.14)

h - , ;

i - ;

L - , ;

z1 - , ;

z2 - , ;

D - , .

h = 0.85 + 0.008 * 108 + 65.8 - 65.2 + 0.05 = 2.36

h = 2.36 .

1.2.3. .

, , [1].

.

.

L, q, d, 1000i i´L V, h/d h, .
/ /

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

23-29 285 1423.5 1.25 1.3 0.37 1.28 0.85 1.06 64.62 64.55 58.70 58.33 59.76 59.39 5.86 6.22
29-36 285 1443.9 1.25 1.3 0.37 1.3 0.85 1.06 64.55 64.62 58.33 57.96 59.39 59.02 6.22 6.66
36-54 250 1462.02 1.25 1.34 0.36 1.32 0.85 1.06 64.62 64.60 57.96 57.60 59.02 58.66 6.66 7.00
54-55 55 2213.4 1.4 2 0.11 1.77 0.76 1.06 64.60 63.00 56.16 56.05 57.22 57.11 8.44 6.95
130.2 d = 300
70-71 10 2213.4 1.4 2 0.02 1.77 0.76 1.06 58.46 63.10 55.30 55.28 56.36 56.34 3.16 7.82
71-72 10 500.88 0.75 3 0.03 1.44 0.73 0.55 63.10 63.10 55.28 55.25 55.83 55.80 7.82 7.85

.

, :

W

Q = ¾¾¾¾, /,

24 * 3.6

W - (n = 2):

W = 10 * F * Y * h = 10 * 125 * 0.5 * 18 = 11250 3.

F - , ;

Y - ;

h - , .

11250

Q = ¾¾¾¾ = 130.2 /;

24 * 3.6

2 q = Q/n = 130.2/2 = 65.1 /; d = 300 ; V = 1.20 /; i = 0.0046.

:

H = i * L + h + åh + h = 0.0046 * 130 + 0.037 + 0.11 + 0 = 0.75 .

V2 1.22

h = z * ¾¾ = 0.5 * ¾¾ = 0.037 ;

2g 19.6

(V - V)2 (1.2 - 1.2)2

h = z ¾¾¾¾ = 1 * ¾¾¾¾ = 0 ;

2g 19.6

V2 b a 1.22

åh = 2 * z90 ¾¾ * (¾¾ + ¾¾ ) = 2 * 0.45 ¾¾ * 1.66 = 0.11.

2g 90 90 19.6

57.11 - 0.75 = 56.36 .

70 - 71 56.36 - 1.06 = 55.30 ( ).


( ).

, -  127.68 /.

2 q = Q/n = 127.68/2 = 63.84 /; d = 300 ; V = 0.90 /; i = 0.0046.

:

H = i * L + h + åh + h = 0.0046 * 130 + 0.02 + 0.06 + 0 = 0.68 .

V2 0.92

h = z * ¾¾ = 0.5 * ¾¾ = 0.02 ;

2g 19.6

(V - V)2 (0.9 - 0.88)2

h = z ¾¾¾¾ = 1 * ¾¾¾¾ = 0 ;

2g 19.6

V2 b a 0.92

åh = 2 * z90 ¾¾ * (¾¾ + ¾¾ ) = 2 * 0.45 ¾¾ * 1.66 = 0.06.

2g 90 90 19.6

57.12 - 0.68 = 56.44 .

70 - 71 56.44 - 0.34 = 56.10 ( ).


 

1.3. .

.

qr; / :

Zmid * A * F

qr = ¾¾¾¾¾, (1.15)

tr1.2n - 0.1

f - , ;

Zmid - , ;

tr - ;

n - , (. 4. [1]);

A - , :

lg p g

A = 20n * q20 * (1 + ¾¾ ), (1.16)

lg mr

q20 - , / , 20 P = 1 , ([1] .1);

mr - , ([1] .4);

g - , [1];

P - , ([1] .5, 6, 7).

, :

t = tcon + tp, , (1.17)

tcon - ; tcon = 5 ;

tp - , :

Lp

tp = 0.017 * ¾¾, (1.18)

Vp

Lp - , ;

Vp - , /.

Zmid :

Zmid = Z1 * f1 + Z2 * f2 + ... + Zn * fn , (1.19)

Z1, Z2, ...Zn - (1, .9,10) ;

f1, f2, ...fn - .

qcal; /, , [1], :

qcal = b * q2, (1.20)

b - , [1].

tp, q / 1 , tp = 0 :

Zmid * A1.2

q = ¾¾¾¾¾ . (1.21)

tcon1.2n - 0.1

qcal1, /, F tp = 0 :

qcal1 = q * F. (1.22)

:

qcal = q * F * p = qcal1 * p , (1.23)

p -  , ( ).

p :

tcon 1.2n - 0.1

p = (¾¾¾), (1.24)

tcon + tp

q20 = 75/ 1, p = 1 ;

mr = 150; g = 1.54; n = 0.71

tr = tcon + tp = 5.

Z = 0.28 20%

蠠 Z = 0.275 30%

Z = 0.038 50%

Zmid = 0.28 * 0.2 + 0.275 * 0.3 + 0.038 * 0.5 = 0.157.


1.4 - .

, , . - , , , .

- . , . - , .

, , , .


.1.4

.1.4.


.

:

-   ;

-   , /.

. , [1] :

q = k * q, /

, , - , k = f (q) .2 [1].

1.15

q, /


5

50 100 300 500

k

2.5 1.7 1.6 1.55 1.5

q, /

12.5 85 160 465 750

, , Q;

-   , /, 1. - F (Qp);

-   , , ( 1) - L;

-   , H, ;

-   F , , , ;

-   , , , 1. - , ;

-   L - , / (, , );

-   L - , /;

-   A - , /;

-   FSI;

-   , /;

-   , H, ;

-   , H, ;

-   SIGMA - , /.3;

-   T - ;

-   A1 -  , ;

-   , ;

-   .

.

:

-   5 /;

-   ;

-   ( , 0);

-   ( , 1).


500.88 /, 255.24 / - - , : 500.88 - 255.24 = 245.64 /.

:

245.64 * 3.6 = 884.3 3/

884.3 * 24 = 21223.3 3 .

.. 4126.8 3/.

:

13775.72 + 21223.3 + 4126.8 = 38083.6 3/.

13901 .3 , 5028 .3/.

: 13901 - 5028 = 8873 .3/, :

Q - Q = 13901/365 - 5028/365 = 38.08 - 13.78 = 24.3 .3/.



2.1. .

, , .

, . , , 15% . , .

, .. , - .

, , [1]. 24 . .

2.1.1. .

, [1], , ( , , ).

, 3:

W = Wmax + W,

Wmax = 10 * Hmax * y * F,

W = 10 * H. * y * F,

:

W = 10 * (Hmax + H.) * y * F, 3 (2.1)

H. - , ; ;

H. - , ; ;

y - ; y = 0.5;

F -  , ( ), ; F ; - 20...30 .

, , 0.5 * W, 3.

:

W.. = 10 * (18 + 1.42) * 0.5 * 7 = 679.7 3.

W = 340 3 .

:

W.. = 10 * 19.42 * 0.5 * 5 = 485.5 3

W = 243 3 .

W. = 10 * 19.42 * 0.5 * 7.1 = 689.4 3

:

W.. = 10 * 19.42 * 0.5 * 23.4 = 2272.1 3

W. = 1136 3 .

, (W..), (W..) (W.) (W..), 3/:

Q.. = W.. + W.. + W. + W.. (2.2)

Q.. = 679.7 + 2272.1 + 689.4 + 485.5 = 4126.8 3/.

.

(q.), (q.), (q) (q) , /:

W..䠠 679.7

q. = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾ = 7.9 /; (2.3)

3.6 * T 3.6 * 24

W.. 2272.1

q. = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾ = 26.3 /; (2.4)

3.6 * T 3.6 * 24

W.򠠠 689.4

q = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾ = 8 /; (2.5)

3.6 * T 3.6 * 24

W.렠 485.5

q = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾ = 5.6 /, (2.6)

3.6 * T 3.6 * 24

T -  ; T = 24 .

2.1.2. .

.

200 . . , /, (3), (4), (5), [8] , .

, , , , ; 2 .

2.1.

2.2. .

, , , , , , .

, ( ). , , , , .

, .

, .

, , , , .

.

2.2.1. .

.1.

2.2.2. .

, [1].

[1], 150 .

:

-  

H = H - 0.3 = 1.4 - 0.3 = 1.1 ;

-  

H = 0.7 + d = 0.7 + 0.15 = 0.85 ;

-  

H = 2.2 .

[6].

2.3. .

, , .

. , .

, ( , ) .

, - .

2.3.1. .

.1.

2.3.2. .

.1.


.

2.2

. - - . - , .
. q, . l, d, .., h/d i . - .,
/ / i´l,

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

1-3 26.3 710 250 0.71 0.7 0.003 2.13 68.27 68.29 66.52 64.39 66.27 64.14 2 4.15
2-3 5.6 165 200 0.63 0.33 0.006 0.99 68.34 68.29 66.54 65.55 66.34 65.35 2 2.94
3-9 31.9 100 250 0.7 1 0.0032 0.32 68.29 68.32 64.39 64.07 64.14 63.82 4.15 4.5
4-9 8 50 200 0.6 0.44 0.004 0.2 68.35 68.32 66.55 66.35 66.35 66.15 2 2.17
5-8 7.9 100 200 0.6 0.44 0.004 0.4 68.41 68.40 66.61 66.21 66.41 66.01 2 2.39

-

6-7 6.58 315 150 0.62 0.6 0.005 1.58 68.21 68.33 66.16 64.58 66.01 64.43 2.2 3.9
7-8 13.17 100 200 0.68 0.6 0.004 0.4 68.33 68.40 64.58 64.18 64.38 63.98 3.95 4.42
8-9 21.07 225 250 0.68 0.6 0.003 0.68 68.40 68.32 64.18 63.5 63.93 63.25 4.47 5.07
9-10 60.97 65 350 0.89 0.67 0.003 0.2 68.32 68.29 63.5 63.3 63.15 62.95 5.17 5.34

11-14 12.19 415 250 0.59 0.44 0.003 1.25 68.50 68.20 67.65 66.40 67.40 66.15 1.1 2.05
12-13 2.73 200 150 0.6 0.32 0.008 1.6 68.33 68.21 67.38 65.78 67.23 65.63 1.1 2.58
13-14 5.46 120 150 0.63 0.48 0.006 0.72 68.21 68.20 65.58 64.86 65.43 64.71 2.58 3.49
14-15 17.65 240 250 0.65 0.53 0.003 0.72 68.20 67.70 64.86 64.14 64.61 63.89 3.59 3.81

2.3.3. , .

, , .

, 2.1, : Q = 4291.6 3/, Q.max = 186.71 3/.

2.3.4. .

, , . .

, , ( ), :

젠 å (Ki * Qi)

K = ¾¾¾¾¾¾, (2.7)

å Qi

Ki - , /;

Qi - , 3/ (. 3.1).

300 * 81 + 20 * 0.4 + 400 * 3.4 + 400 * 80 + 50 * 4126.8

K = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 61.45 /

4291.6

å(Ki * Qi)

K. = ¾¾¾¾¾¾, (2.8)

å Qi

Ki. - , /;

300 * 81 + 200 * 0.4 + 400 * 3.4 + 400 * 80 + 100 * 4126.8

K. = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 109.61 /.

4291.6

:

-  61.45 - 20

= ¾¾¾¾¾ * 100% = ¾¾¾¾ * 100 = 67.45%

 61.45

2.3.5. .

.

, () , [4]. , /:

K * (Q.. + Q) - K * Q

K = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾, (2.9)

Q..

K - - , /;

K - , ; 10 /;

Q.. - - , ; , .. Q.. = Q, 3/;

Q - , 3/;

K - , /.

10 * (4320.36 + 54000) - 3 * 54000

K = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 97.49 /

4320.36

, .

- , , , , . , ..

Z = + + Y min, (2.10)

- , ../;

- , , ../;

Y - , , ( ), ../.

, ../:

0.29 -0.391

= 63.8 * Q.max * K, (2.11)

Q.max - , (. 3.1), 3/;

K - , , /; 3.2.

(. 2.1).

(1) , (2) .

, , [4] . 2.2.

2.2

Q., 3/

K, /

81 50
0.4 20
3.4 5
80 5
164.8 ¾

.2.1 .2.2 .


1- : , 5/. (1), , , 5/.

, (2). Q1 = 0, Q2 = 164.8 3/.

2- : , 20 /. (1), ( ) Q1 = 80.4 3/; , 20 /, Q2 = 84.4 3/.

3- : , 50 /. Q1 = 83.8 3/, Q2 = 81 3/.

4- : , . , Q1 = 164.8 3/; Q2 = 0.

.3.1 , 3/:

Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q.., (2.12)

Q.. - , 3/ (.2.1)

, .3/:

365 * Q

W = ¾¾¾¾¾, (2.13)

1000

Q - , 3/.

- , .3/,

W = W1 + W.. (2.14)

, W1 = W. , . [2].

, .3/:

W. = 0.01 * Y * H. * F, (2.15)

Y F - , .2.1.1;

H. - , ; .

, , , ./:

= E * W , (2.16)

E - , ./3; , , E = 0.5 /3.

, ./,

Y = E * W , (2.17)

E - ; , ,

E = 0.10 * K, /3.

2.3, Z (18) , .

2.3

K,

Q,

, .3

, ./
/

3/

W1

W.

W

Y

Z

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

5 0 0 563.01 563.01 0 563.01 154.95 717.96
20 80.4 29.35 563.01 578.36 11.68 568.36 72.31 652.35
50 83.8 30.59 563.01 593.6 15.3 593.6 62.97 671.87
164.8 60.15 563.01 623.16 30.08 623.16 0 653.24

K, /, :

K = 20 /.

- .

, %,

K - K

= ¾¾¾¾¾¾ * 100%, (2.18)

K

K - - , , /; (6).

61.45 - 20

= ¾¾¾¾¾ * 100% = 67.45 %

61.45

K 20 / .

2.4. .

.

80 3.

, , Q.max, 3/, , .

, , , .

- () . 40 3.

(.2.3).

2.4.1. .

, .

(.2.4) q, 3/.

:

-   n ( [1], n³2), , n=1;

-   H = 1 B = 2 , [1].

, /:

q

u = ¾¾¾¾ . (2.19)

n * H * B

0.052

u = ¾¾¾¾ = 0.026 / = 2.6 /.

1 * 1 * 2

[1], u 4...6 / ( u 2...10 /).

, :

u

L = ¾ * a * H, (2.20)

u0

u0 - (.. ), /.

a - , , u/u0 = 6.5, a = 1.5.

2.6

L = ¾¾ * 1.5 * 1 = 9.75 .

0.4

, :

t0 = L / u. (2.21)

9.75

t0 = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.68 .

0.004 * 3600

, :

t = H / u0. (2.22)

1

t = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.07 .

0.004 * 3600

, t t0.

, , , 3/:

Q * K * .

W = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ , (2.23)

r * (100 - p) * 106

Q -  , , 3/;

r - , /3; [1], r=1.1/3;

p - , %; p = 95% [1].

. - . . = 90% [4].

4291.6 * 120

W = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.0936 3/.

1.1 * (100 - 95) * 106

, :

W

h = ¾¾¾¾ . (2.24)

n * L * B

0.094

h = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.00482 /.

1 * 9.75 * 2

[1], 0.1. , , ..

n = h / 0.1. (2.25)

n = 0.00482 / 0.1 = 0.0482

h=0.1 , [1].

h h. h = 0.3 ; h. = 0.3 , [1].

, :

H = h + h+ H + h. + h . (2.26)

H = 0.3 + 0.1 + 1 + 0.3 + 0.1 = 1.8 .

. .

, ,

B = m * B + (m + 1) * 0.1,

B - , ;

m - , ; , m = 2, . . B£3 ;

B - , .

B - (m + 1) * 0.1

B = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ , (2.27)

m

2 - (2 + 1) * 0.1

B = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.85

2

, .. = = 1 .

h = 0.1 .

, :

v * 2h

L = j * ¾¾¾¾ , (2.28)

u0 * cosa

j - , ;

2h - ;

u0 - , /;

a - ; a = 45.

2.6 * 0.5

L = 1.4 * ¾¾¾¾¾ = 6.4

0.4 * cos45

, 1.5...3 . 1 0.5 .

.. = 96%. , , d0 = 0.002 c.

u0 , /:

g

u0 = a1 * ¾¾¾ * (r - r) * d02, (2.29)

18 * m

a1 - , ;

m - ; 20 m = 0.01 /*;

r, r - , /3;

g - ; g = 981 c/2

d0 - , , .

981

u0 = 0.88 * ¾¾¾¾ * (1 - 0.9) * 0.0022 = 0.19 /.

18 * 0.01

, /:

(100 - ..)

K.. = K1 + K2 * ¾¾¾¾¾, (2.30)

100

1 - , ;

2 - , ;

.. - .

(100 - 96)

K.. = 14 + 150 * ¾¾¾¾ = 20 /.

100

, /:

(100 - ..)

K... = ¾¾¾¾¾ * , (2.31)

100

... - .

(100 - 90)

K... = ¾¾¾¾ * 109.61 = 10.96 /.

100

2.4.2. .

, , (.2.5) .

, , , , , .

, 3/:

Q * (K - K.)

W = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾, (2.32)

g * (100 - P) * 104

K - ,

, /3;

K. -

, /3;

g - ,

/3; g = 1 /3 [3];

P -

, %; P = 50...70% [3].

4291.6 * (157.68 - 20)

W = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 1.18 3/.

1 * (100 - 50) *104

( , ).

1.18 3/ : D = 1.6 ; H= 1.5 ; H. = 0.2 ; H. = 0.5 ; H. = 0.5 ; H = 2.7 .

, 3,

p * D2 * H

W = ¾¾¾¾¾¾. (2.33)

4

3.14 * 1.62 * 1.5

W = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 3 3.

4

() 20 . [3]:

W * 24

T = ¾¾¾¾ . (2.34)

W

3 * 24

T = ¾¾¾ = 61 .

1.18

, 5...8% - , - - .

, , .


.

2.2

, . . .
. . . - . . - . - - .

3/

3/

3/

3/

%

3/

3/

3/

3/

3/

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

0 - 1 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.1 9.38 171.95 181.43
1 - 2 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.1 ¾ 171.95 172.05
2 - 3 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.1 ¾ 171.95 172.05
3 - 4 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.1 ¾ 171.95 172.05
4 - 5 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.1 ¾ 171.95 172.05
5 - 6 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.1 ¾ 171.95 172.05
6 - 7 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.1 ¾ 171.95 172.05
7 - 8 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.1 ¾ 171.95 172.05
8 - 9 5.06 ¾ ¾ ¾ 12.5 0.47 0.11 ¾ 171.95 177.59
9 - 10 5.06 ¾ 1.7 ¾ 6.25 0.23 0.11 ¾ 171.95 179.05
10 - 11 5.07 0.2 ¾ 8 6.25 0.23 0.11 ¾ 171.95 185.56
11 - 12 5.06 ¾ 1.7 8 18.75 0.7 0.11 ¾ 171.95 187.52
12 - 13 5.06 0.2 ¾ 8 6.25 0.24 0.11 ¾ 171.95 185.56
13 - 14 5.06 ¾ ¾ 8 6.25 0.24 0.11 ¾ 171.95 185.36
14 - 15 5.07 ¾ ¾ 8 6.25 0.23 0.11 ¾ 171.95 185.36
15 - 16 5.06 ¾ ¾ 8 37.5 1.41 0.11 ¾ 171.95 186.53
16 - 17 5.06 ¾ ¾ 8 12.5 0.47 0.11 9.38 171.95 194.97
17 - 18 5.06 ¾ ¾ 8 6.25 0.23 0.11 ¾ 171.95 185.35
18 - 19 5.07 ¾ ¾ 8 6.25 0.23 0.1 ¾ 171.95 185.35
19 - 20 5.06 ¾ ¾ 8 18.75 0.7 0.1 ¾ 171.95 185.81
20 - 21 5.06 ¾ ¾ ¾ 6.25 0.24 0.1 ¾ 171.95 177.35
21 - 22 5.06 ¾ ¾ ¾ 6.25 0.24 0.1 ¾ 171.95 177.35
22 - 23 5.07 ¾ ¾ ¾ 6.25 0.23 0.1 ¾ 171.95 177.35
23 - 24 5.06 ¾ ¾ ¾ 37.5 1.41 0.1 ¾ 171.95 178.52
å 81 0.4 3.4 80 200% 7.5 2.5 18.76 4126.8 4333.48



3.1

- - -
. .

 

%

3/

%

3/

%

3/

3/

3/

%

3/

3/

3/

%

3/

%

3/

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

 

0 - 1 1.55 209.25 12.0 4.8 12.5 0.39 5.6 ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.1 9.38 3.75 0.99 1.67 230.51

 

1 - 2 1.55 209.25 12.0 4.8 6.25 0.20 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.1 ¾ 3.75 0.99 1.56 215.34

 

2 - 3 1.55 209.25 12.5 5 6.25 0.19 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.1 ¾ 3.75 0.99 1.57 215.53

 

3 - 4 1.55 209.25 13.0 5.2 18.75 0.58 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.1 ¾ 3.75 0.99 1.57 216.12

 

4 - 5 1.55 209.25 13.0 5.2 6.25 0.19 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.1 ¾ 3.75 0.99 1.57 215.73

 

5 - 6 4.35 587.25 12.5 5 6.25 0.19 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.1 ¾ 3.75 0.99 4.31 593.53

 

6 - 7 5.95 803.25 12.5 5 6.25 0.20 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.1 ¾ 6.25 1.68 5.88 810.23

 

7 - 8 5.80 783 12.5 5 37.5 1.16 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.1 ¾ 6.25 1.68 5.74 790.94

 

8 - 9 6.70 904.5 12.5 7.5 12.5 0.59 3.7 1.01 12.5 0.47 0.11 ¾ 3.75 0.99 6.67 918.87

 

9 - 10 6.70 904.5 15.0 9 6.25 0.3 ¾ 1.35 6.25 0.23 0.11 ¾ 3.75 0.99 6.65 916.48

 

10 - 11 6.70 904.5 15.0 9 6.25 0.3 ¾ 2.65 6.25 0.23 0.11 ¾ 3.75 0.99 6.66 917.78

 

11 - 12 4.80 648 10.0 6 18.75 0.89 ¾ 2.96 18.75 0.7 0.11 ¾ 3.75 0.99 4.79 659.65

 

12 - 13 3.95 533.25 11.0 6.6 6.25 0.3 ¾ 2.65 6.25 0.24 0.11 ¾ 3.75 0.99 3.95 544.14

 

13 - 14 5.55 749.25 12.0 7.2 6.25 0.3 ¾ 2.61 6.25 0.24 0.11 ¾ 3.75 0.99 5.52 760.7

 

14 - 15 6.05 816.75 12.0 7.2 6.25 0.29 ¾ 2.61 6.25 0.23 0.11 ¾ 3.75 0.99 6.01 828.18

 

15 - 16 6.05 816.75 12.5 7.5 37.5 1.78 ¾ 2.62 37.5 1.41 0.11 ¾ 3.75 0.99 6.03 831.16

 

16 - 17 5.60 756 12.5 7.5 12.5 0.59 5.6 2.61 12.5 0.47 0.11 9.38 3.75 0.99 5.69 783.25

 

17 - 18 5.60 756 15.0 9 6.25 0.3 ¾ 2.61 6.25 0.23 0.11 ¾ 3.75 0.99 5.59 769.24

 

18 - 19 4.30 580.5 15.0 9 6.25 0.3 ¾ 2.61 6.25 0.23 0.1 ¾ 6.25 1.67 4.32 594.41

 

19 - 20 4.35 587.25 10.0 6 18.75 0.89 ¾ 2.62 18.75 0.7 0.1 ¾ 6.25 1.67 4.35 599.23

 

20 - 21 4.35 587.25 11.0 6.6 6.25 0.3 ¾ 1.01 6.25 0.24 0.1 ¾ 3.75 0.99 4.33 596.49

 

21 - 22 2.35 317.25 12.0 7.2 6.25 0.3 ¾ 1.01 6.25 0.24 0.1 ¾ 3.75 0.99 2.37 327.09

 

22 - 23 1.55 209.25 12.0 7.2 6.25 0.29 ¾ 1.01 6.25 0.23 0.1 ¾ 3.75 0.99 1.59 219.07

 

23 - 24 1.55 209.25 12.5 7.5 37.5 1.78 ¾ 1.02 37.5 1.41 0.1 ¾ 3.75 0.99 1.61 222.05

 

å 100 13500 300 160 300 12.6 14.9 32.96 200 7.5 2.5 18.76 100 26.5 100

 

S13775.72


3.1. .

:

-   :

a * 1000

K = ¾¾¾¾¾, /, (3.1)

n

n - , /;

a - , .

65 * 1000

K = ¾¾¾¾ = 260 /.

250

-   20:

a * 1000

K = ¾¾¾¾¾, /, (3.2)

n

a - 20;

75 * 1000

K = ¾¾¾¾ = 300 /.

250

:

-   K = 5 /;

-   20 K =5 /.

, :

-   K = 11 /;

-   20 K = 20 /.

:

K * Q + K * Q + K * Q

K = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾, /, (3.3)

Q + Q + Q

Q, Q, Q - , , 3/.

-   :

260 * (13500+26.5) + 5 * 187.5 + 11 * (32.96+18.76+10)

K = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 255.4 /;

13526.5 + 187.5 + 61.72

-   20:

300 * (13500 + 26.5) + 5 * 187.5 + 20 * 61.72

K20 = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 294.7 /.

13526.5 + 187.5 + 61.72

3.2 .

, m = 5 /.

:

K - m

= ¾¾¾¾¾ * 100 % (3.4)

K

255.4 - 5

= ¾¾¾¾ * 100 % = 98 %.

255.4

3.3 20.

20 , m = 5 /.

20 K = 5 /.

20:

K - K

= ¾¾¾¾¾¾ * 100 %. (3.5)

K

294.7 - 5

= ¾¾¾¾ * 100% = 98.3 %.

294.7


3.4.

:

Q = 13775.72 3/,

Qmax. = 918.87 3/, K = 255.4 /,

qmax. = 255 /, K = 294.7 /.

:

= 98%; = 98.3%.

:

Q = 38083.6 3/;

Qmax. = 1803.2 3/, K = 156.2 /,

Qmax.c = 500.88 /, K. = 140.5 /.

: (Q), (K), (Lex = 5 /). , - .

3.5. .

3.5.1. .

, .3.2. [3]:

= 2000 ;

h1= 750 ;

= 2300 ; b = 600 ;
H = 2000 ; l = 1000 ;

H1= 1600 ;

l1= 1200 ;

h = 750 ;

: 250 .

3.5.2. .

, - . qmax = 0.255 3/, :

   

    蠠 D = 6000 ;

    蠠 B =10000 ;

    ࠠ b = 800 ;

n=2, .

:

qmax

w = ¾¾¾, 2, (3.6)

n * V

V - , [1] V = 0.3 /.

0.255

w = ¾¾¾ = 0.43 2.

2 * 0.3

:

b

h = ¾ *tg a, , (3.7)

2

a - , [1] a = 60.

0.8

h = ¾ * tg 60 = 0.69 .

2

:

b * h𠠠 b

w = ¾¾¾ = ¾ * tg a, 2, (3.8)

2 4

0.8 * 0.69

w = ¾¾¾¾ = 0.28 2.

2

:

w = w - w, 2, (3.9)

w = 0.43 - 0.28 = 0.15 2.

:

w

h = ¾¾, , (3.10)

b

0.15

h = ¾¾ = 0.19 .

0.8

:

h = h + h, , (3.11)

h = 0.19 + 0.69 = 0.88 .

:

(D - b) - d0

h = ¾¾¾¾¾ *tg a, , (3.12)

2

d - , d0 = 0.4...0.5

(6 - 0.8) - 0.4

h = ¾¾¾¾¾ * tg 60 = 4.16 .

2

h = 0.3 .

:

H = h + h +h, , (3.13)

H = 0.3 + 0.88 + 4.16 = 5.34 .

:

L p * (D - b)

t = ¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾, , (3.14)

V V

[1] 30 .

3.14 * (6 - 0.8)

t = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 54.43 > 30 .

0.3

, :

A * N

W = ¾¾¾¾, 3/, (3.15)

1000

A - , 1 ; [1], A = 0.02 /;

N - ;

N = N + N, (3.16)

N - ;

N - ;

K * Q + K * Q

N = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾, (3.17)

A

5 * 187.5 + 11 * 61.72

N = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 25 .

65

N = 54000 + 25 = 54025 .

0.02 * 54025

W = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 1.08 3/.

1000

, .

, , , , . , qmax.c = 500.88 /. . :

q 0.501

V = ¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾ = 0.29 /.

n * w 4 * 0.43

.

3.5.3 .

, . , , .

.

:

W * T

W = ¾¾¾¾, 3, (3.18)

n

W - , , 3/;

T - , [1], T = 5;

n - , n = 2.

1.08 * 5

W = ¾¾¾ = 2.7 3.

2

D = 1.6  :

D - d0

h = ¾¾¾ * tg a, , (3.19)

2

d0 = 0.5 , a ³ 60.

1.4 - 0.5

h = ¾¾¾¾ * tg 60 = 0.78 .

2

, , :

4 * [W - 1/12 * p * h * (D2 + D * d0 + d02)]

h = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾. (3.20)

p * D2

4 * [2.7 - 1/12 * 3.14 * 0.78 * (1.42 + 1.4 * 0.5 + 0.52)]

h = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 1.37 .

3.14 * 1.42

:

H = h + h + h = 0.3 + 1.37 + 0.45 = 2.12 . (3.21)

h - , h = 0.3 .


3.5.4. .

- . , 500 / . . , 40%.

:

1000 * Hset * Kset

U0 = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾, /񠠠 (3.22)

Hset * Kset n2

tset * (¾¾¾¾)

h1

Hset - , ; .31 [1] Hset = 0.8 - 1.2;

Kset - ; .31 [1] Kset = 0.85;

tset - , , h1; . 2.2 [12]; = 70%, = 3600 ;

n2 - , ; . 2. [1] n2 = 0.31.

1000 * 1 * 0.85

U0 = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.2 /.

0.85 * 1 0.31

3600 * (¾¾¾)

0.5

- :

_________________

/ 4 * qmax

D = / ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾, , (3.23)

Ö n * p * K * (U0 - Vtb)

Vtb - , /, .32 [1] Vw, /; - Vtb = 0.

________________

/ 4 * 255

D = / ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 29.8 .

Ö 2 * 3.14 * 0.85 * 0.2

D = 30 .

, 3/, (33) [1]:

qset = 2.8 * Kset * (Dset2 - den2) * (U0 - Vtb), (3.24)

den - , .

qset = 2.8 * 0.85 * (302 - 12) * 0.31 = 424.2 3/.

:

1000 * Hset * Kset

T = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾, . (3.25)

U0

1000 * 1 * 0.85

T = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 4250 = 1. 11.

0.2

, :

Q * K *

W = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾, 3/, (3.26)

(100 - pm) * r * 106

Q - , , 3/;

pm - , pm = 95%;

r - , r = 1 /3.

13775.7 * 255.4 * 70

W = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 49.3 3/.

(100 - 95) * 1 * 106

0.3 .

- 0.7 .

:

H = 0.3 + 1 + 0.7 = 2 .

:

W = W * = 49.3 * 2 = 98.5 2, (3.27)

T - , ; .6.66. [1] T = 2 .

, 2 .

, :

Qmax.䠠 1803.2

qset = ¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾ = 901.6 3/.

n 2

(4.24) :

901.6

U0 = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.42 /.

2.8 * 0.85 * (302 - 12)

(4.22) :

1000 * 1 * 0.85

tset = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 1717 c.

0.85 * 1 0.31

0.42 * (¾¾¾)

0.5

 = 63%. .

3.5.5. .

- . - [11] < 1000 / . 150 /, .

, ai = 3.5 / Ii = 90 3/:

ai 3.5

Ri = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.46. (3.28)

1000/Ii - ai 1000/90 - 3.5

(54) [1]:

Len - Lex

t0 = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾, , (4.29)

Ri * ar * (1 - s) * r

Len - . , /;

Lex - . , /;

s - , . 40 [1]; s = 0.3;

r - , . 1 1 , :

Lex * C0 1

r = rmax * ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ * ¾¾¾¾, (3.30)

Lex * C0 + K0 * Lex 1 + j * ar

rmax -  , /(*), . 40 [1]; rmax = 85;

C0 -  , /; 0 = 2 /;

K1 - , ,  ./, . 40 [1]; K1 = 33  ./;

K0 - , , 2/, . 40 [1]; K0 = 0.625 2/;

j - , /, . 40 [1]; j = 0.07 /.

ar - , /, :

ar = ai * (1/2 * Ri + 1) = 3.5 * (1/2 * 0.46 + 1) = 4.31 /. (3.31)

15 * 2 1

r = 85 * ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ * ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 18.6 .

15 * 2 + 33 * 2 + 0.625 * 15 1 + 0.07 * 4.31

294.7 - 15

t0 = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 10.84 .

0.46 * 4.31 * (1 - 0.3) 18.6

:

2.5 Len 2.5 206.58

tat = ¾¾ lg ¾¾ = ¾¾ lg ¾¾¾ = 1.52 , (3.32)

__ Lex ___ 15

Ö ai Ö 3.5

Len - . , :

Len + Lt * R 294.7 + 15 * 0.46

Len = ¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 206.58 /

1 + R 1 + 0.46

:

tr = t0 - tat = 10.84 - 1.52 = 9.32 . (3.33)

- :

tat-r = (1 + Ri) * tat + Ri * tr, (3.34)

tat-r = (1 + 0.46) * 1.52 + 0.46 * 9.32 = 6.51 .

(58) [1] :

Wat = tat * (1 + Ri) * qw, 3, (3.35)

Wat = 1.52 * (1 + 0.46) * 918.87 = 2039 3.

(58) [1] :

Wr = tr * Ri * qw (3.36)

Wr = 9.32 * 0.46 * 918.87 = 3940 3.

:

W = Wat + Wr = 2039 + 3940 = 5979 3. (3.37)

Ii, -:

(1 + Ri) * tat + Ri * tr * ar

a = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾, /. (3.38)

tat-r

(1 + 0.46) * 1.52 + 0.46 * 9.32 * 4.31

a = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 3.18 /,

6.51

, . 1 , (53) [1]:

24 * (Len - Lex) 24 * (294.7 - 15)

qi = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 463.23 /. (3.39)

a * (1 - s) * t at-r 3.18 * (1 - 0.3) * 6.51

. 41 [1] qi Ii = 89.5 3/, Ii = 90 3/.

Ii (52) [1] :

3.5

Ri = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.46.

1000/89.5 - 3.5

, Ri = 0.46 .

66% :

(Wr/W) 100% = (3940/5979) = 66%,

. 3.6 [12] - ( 902-2-268) 6 , 42 , 5 - 3780 3. - 7560 3. . - :

t = W/qw = 7560/918.87 = 8.23 . (3.40)

:

W * ai.mix

ai = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾, /, (3.41)

Watm + (1.2 * Ri + 1) * Wr

7560 * 3.5

ai = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 6.07 /.

1259 + (1.2 * 0.46 + 1) * 2521

(67) [1] :

4.5 * Kss * Hset0.8

qssa = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾, 3/(2 * ), (3.42)

(0.1 * Ii * ai)0.5 - 0.01 * At

At - , At ³ 10 / [1]; At = 15 /.

4.5 * 0.85 * 10.8

qssa = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.94 3/(2 * ).

(0.1 * 90 * 6.07)0.5 - 0.01 * 15

.

300 ´ 300 ´ 35 , q = 80 - 120 /.

qair, 3/3, :

q0 * (Len - Lex)

qair = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾. (3.43)

K1 * K2 * K * K3 * (Ca - C0)

q0 -  , 1  , 15 - 20 / - 1.1;

K1 - , faz/fat . 42 [1]; faz/fat = 0.1 K1 = 1.47;

K2 - , ha . 43 [1];

K2 = 2.8 ha = H - 0/3 = 5 - 0.3 = 4.7 ;

K - , , (62) [1]:

K = 1 + 0.02 * (Tw - 20) = 1 + 0.02 * (12 - 20) = 0.84 (3.44)

Tw -  , ;

K3 -  , 0.85;

Ca -  , /, (63) [1]:

Ca = (1 + ha/20.6) * C, (3.45)

 -  , :

475 - 26.5 * s 475 - 26.5 * 3

= ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 8.7, (3.46)

33.5 + Tw 33.5 + 12

Cs - , /; s = 3 /.

a = (1 + 4.7/20.6) * 8.7 = 10.68 /.

1.1 * (294.7 - 15)

qair = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 12.06 3/3.

1.47 * 2.8 * 0.84 * 0.85 * (10.68 - 2)

:

qair * Hat 12.06 * 5

Ia = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾ = 39.67 3/(2 * ), (3.47)

tat 1.52

Hat -  , .

:

Ia.min < Ia > Ia.max

Ia.max . 42 [1], faz/fat, Ia.min - .43 [1], ha. Ia > Ia.max, . faz/fat = 0.35, K1 = 1.92.

1.1 * (294.7 - 15)

qair = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 9.23 3/3.

1.92 * 2.8 * 0.84 * 0.85 * (10.68 - 2)

9.23 * 5

Ia = ¾¾¾¾ = 30.37 3/(2 * ).

1.52

:

Ia.min < Ia < Ia.max.

Ia.min = 3.15 3/(2 * ),

Ia.max = 35 3/(2 * ).

W, 3/, , :

W = qair * qw = 9.23 * 918.87 = 8564 3/.

:

Pi = 0.8 * Ccdp + Kg * Len, /, (3.48)

Ccdp -  , , /;

* (100 - ) 255.4 * (100 - 70)

Ccdp = ¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 76.62 /;

100 100

Kg -  ; Kg = 0.3.

Pi = 0.8 * 76.62 + 0.3 * 294.7 = 149.7 /.

- , . : - , .

3.5.6. .

- . qssa, 3/(2 * ), .2.5.6.

[1], 1.2 - 1.3 .

:

1.3 * Qmax.

F0 = ¾¾¾¾¾, 2, (3.49)

qssa

1.3 * 918.87

F0 = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 1271 2.

0.94

:

_____ ________

/ 4 * F0 / 4 * 1271

D = / ¾¾¾ = / ¾¾¾¾ = 28.5 . (3.50)

Ö n * p Ö 2 * 3.14

- . .

, D = 30 , :

Qmax. 1803.2

qssa = ¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾ = 0.85 3/(2 * )

F0 2119.5

F0 -  , 2;

p * D2 3.14 * 302

F0 = n * ¾¾¾ = 3 * ¾¾¾¾ = 2119.5 2.

4 4


3.5.7. .

. [1] a = 0.003 /3.

:

Wmax = a * Qmax. = 0.003 * 918.87 = 2.76 /, (3.51)

Qmax. - , 3/.

:

Q򠠠 13775.7

W = a * ¾¾ = 0.003 * ¾¾¾ = 1.72 /, (3.52)

24 24

:

W = W * 24 = 1.72 * 24 = 41.28 /. (3.53)

:

W = W * 30 = 41.28 * 30 = 1238 /. (3.54)

, :

(3.51):

Wmax = 0.003 * 1803.2 = 5.41 /,

(3.52):

38083.6

W = 0.003 * ¾¾¾ = 4.76 /,

24

(3.53):

W = 4.76 * 24 = 114.24 /.

-100 3 /. , - . , 13.63 , = 500 , B = 600 , L = 6.1 , Dh 0.20 .

3.5.8. .

. . , [1], ³ 30 . .

:

W = Q max. * t, 3. (3.55)

t - , .

W = 918.87 * 1.0 = 918.9 3.

H = 2.5 , B = 5 ( [1] B = (2 - 5) * H), n = 2 .

:

W 918.9

L = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾ = 31 . (3.56)

n * B * H 2 * 6 * 2.5

L : H, [1], 8 20, L = 31 .

W, , :

Q򠠠 13775.72

W = Q0 * ¾¾ = 0.5 * ¾¾¾ = 6.9 3, (3.57)

1000 1000

Q0 - , 1 3 ; [1] Q0 = 0.5 /3.

:

W񠠠 6.9

h = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾ = 0.02 . (3.58)

n * B * L 2 * 6 * 31

h = 0.1 .

:

H = h + H + h + h = 0.3 + 2.5 + 0.3 + 0.1 = 3.2 ,

h - , ; h = 0.3 ;

h - , ; h = 0.3 .

, :

Qmax. = 1803.2 3/,

. (3.55) t:

t = W/Qmax. = 918.9/1803.2 = 0.51 .

3.5.9. .

. .

, 3/,

Pmax * Q򠠠 179.6 * 13775.72

qmax = ¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 25.8 3/, (3.59)

24 * C 24 * 4000

C -  , /3;

Pmax -  , /3;

Pmax = K * P = 1.2 * 149.7 = 179.6 /, (3.60)

K - , 1.2.

F0, 2:

qmax 25.8

F = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾ = 0.24 2, (3.61)

3600 * V𠠠 3.6 * 30

V -  , [1], V <= 30 /;

F0, 2:

q栠 15.5

F0 = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾ = 43 2, (3.62)

3.6 * V0 3.6 * 0.1

V0 -  , [1] V0<=0.1 /;

q -  , 3/, ;

q = qmax * (W1 - W2)/(100 - W2) = (3.63)

99.2 - 98

= 25.8 * ¾¾¾¾ = 15.5 3/,

100 - 98

W1 W2 -  , %.

n = 2.

, :

___________ ____________

/ 4 * (F + F0) / 4 * (0.24 + 43)

D = / ¾¾¾¾¾ = / ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 5.3 . (3.64)

Ö n * p Ö 2 * 3.14

:

______ _______

/ 4 * F򠠠 / 4 * 0.24

d = / ¾¾¾ = / ¾¾¾ = 0.39 . (3.65)

Ö n * p Ö 2 * 3.14

Dp hp:

Dp = hp = 1.35 * d = 1.35 * 0.39 = 0.53 . (3.66)

D:

D = 1.3 * Dp = 1.3 * 0.53 = 0.69 . (3.67)

:

h0 = 3.6 * V0 * t = 3.6 * 0.07 * 12 = 3 , (3.68)

t -  , , t = 12 .

:

qmax 25.8

h = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.14 ; (3.69)

n * p * Dp * V 2 * 3.14 * 0.53 * 15 * 3.6

V -  [1] V<=15 /.

h :

D - d0 5.3 - 0.5

h = ¾¾¾ * tg a = ¾¾¾ * tg 60 = 4.16 . (3.70)

2 2

W 3:

W = (1/12) * p * h * (D + D * d0 + d0), (3.71)

= (1/12) * 3.14 * 4.16 * (5.32 + 5.3 * 0.5 + 0.52) = 33.7 3.

:

100 - p1 t

W = qmax * ¾¾¾ * ¾¾ = (3.72)

100 - p2 n

100 - 99.2 8

= 25.8 * ¾¾¾¾ * ¾¾ = 20.64 3,

100 - 98 4

p2 -  ; [1], p2 = 98%;

t -  ; t = 8 .

W < W, .

H:

H = h + h + h + h0 + h, (3.73)

H = 0.3 + 0.14 + 0.3 + 3 + 4.16 = 7.9 ,

h -  , , 0.3 .


3.5.10. .

. , .

:

, , , :

K * * k 255.4 * 0.7 * 1.2

Q = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ * Q = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ * 13775.72 = 3 /, (3.74)

1000 * 1000 1000 * 1000

Pi - b 149.7 - 12

= ¾¾¾¾¾ * Q = ¾¾¾¾¾ * 13775.72 = 1.9 /, (3.75)

1000 * 1000 1000 * 1000

 -  ; = 70%;

k - , , ; [12] k = 1.2;

Pi -  , /; . . 3.5.5;

b -  , /.

:

Q * (100 - B) * (100 - ) 3 * (100 - 5) * (100 - 30)

Q = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 2 /, (3.76)

100 * 100 100 * 100

* (100 - B) * (100 - ) 1.9 * (100 - 5) * (100 - 25)

= ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 1.4 /, (3.77)

100 * 100 100 * 100

B B -  ; B = B = 5 %;

 -  ; = 25 %, = 30 %.

, 3/:

100 * Q 100 * 3

V = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 50 3/; (3.78)

(100 - W) * r񠠠 (100 - 94) * 1

W -  , %;

r -  .

100 * 100 * 1.9

V = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 63 3/; (3.79)

(100 - W) * r렠 (100 - 97) * 1

W -  , %;

r -  .

:

-  

M = Q + = 3 + 1.9 = 4.9 /; (3.80)

-  

= Q + = 2 + 1.4 = 3.4 /; (3.81)

-  

= V + V = 50 + 63 = 113 3/. (3.82)

, %:

B = 100 * (1 - /) = 100 * (1 - 4.9/113) = 95.7 %. (3.83)

é 砠 ù

= 100 * ½1 - ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾½ =

ë Q * (100 - B)/100 + * (100 - B)/100û

é 3.4 ù

= 100 * ½1 - ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ ½ = 27 %. (3.84)

ë 3 * (100 - 5)/100 + 1.9 * (100 - 5)/100û

, [1] d = 19 % ( T = 53).

:

M * 100 113 * 100

W = ¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 595 3. (3.85)

d 19

m = 2 .

:

W򠠠 595

W = ¾¾ = ¾¾ = 297.5 3. (3.86)

m 2

:

-   500 3,

-   D = 10 ,

-   h. = 1.45 ,

-   h. = 1.7 ,

-   h = 5 ,

-   H = 8.15 .

, :

Y = a - n * D = 49.3 - 0.17 * 10 = 47.6 %, (3.87)

a -  , %:

44 * + 53 * Q砠 44 * 1.4 + 53 * 2

a = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 49.3 %; (3.88)

M砠 3.4

n -  , , . 61 [1].

, :

Y * M砠 47.6 * 3400

W = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 1618 3, (3.89)

100 * 㠠 100 * 1

 -  = 1 /3,

:

W㠠 1618

F = ¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾ = 1.16 2, (3.90)

m * 700 2 * 700

700 3/2  -  1 2 .

:

_______ ________

/ 4 * F. / 4 * 1.16

D = / ¾¾¾ = / ¾¾¾¾ = 1.22 . (3.91)

Ö p Ö 3.14

, , .

t * W㠠 2 * 1618

W = ¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾ = 67.4 3, (3.92)

m * 24 2 * 24

t -  , ;

m -  .

W 7-07-01/66 100 3 : D = 7400 ; D = 6600 ; H = 7450 ; H = 3450 ; H = 3400 .

3.5.11. .

- . , :

M * 1000 4.9 * 1000

W = ¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 8.5 3/, (3.93)

24 * r * T 24 * 1.5 * 16

[1] 1 1 ( = 8.5 3/).

 - 50 - 4 :

-  

-   9 3/,

-   -   50 ,
-   -   900 ,
-   -   2000...2650 /,
-   , L´B´H -   2710´1990´1526 ,
-   -   1.8 ,
-   -   28 .

4.5.12. -.

[1], - 20% . - .3.10. . 64 [1] - h=1.0 3/2 .

- 2 :

365 * M 365 * 113

F = 0.2 * ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.2 * ¾¾¾¾¾ = 8775.5 2 (3.92)

h * K 1 * 0.94

K - , , .3.[1].

.3 [13] -:

F 8775.5

n = ¾¾ = ¾¾¾ = 8 , (3.93)

fꠠ 1188

b = 18 , l = 66 , H = 2.4 .

3.5.13. .

.

:

  Ѡ .Ƞ ۠


1 Ѡ

.

.

2

. .

.3.11.

3.5.13.1. .

, , . Q = 1803.2 3/, 0.55 .3/: 1.5´2.8, = 3, ´´ = 4525´1850´2750 .

0.5% , .. 2.5 /. .

3.5.13.2. .

( 5 /), [1], -. ( ) ( ). .

[1] :

-   0.8...1.8 0.4 ;

-   0.5...1.2 0.6 ;

-   2.0...32.0 0.6 .

H 1.6 . h = 2.5 > 2 .

1. .

() Q = 38083.6 3/, Q = 1803.2 3/, q = 500.88 /.

T = 24 , V.. = 8 /, w = 14 /(*2), t1 = 0.12 , t2 = 0.33 , n = 2:

Q

F = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = (3.94)

T * V - 3.6 * w * n * t1 - n * t2 * V

38083.6

= ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 218.1 2.

24 * 8 - 3.6 * 14 * 2 * 0.12 - 2 * 0.33 * 8

:

__ _____

N = 0.5 * ÖF = 0.5 * Ö218.1 = 8 . (3.95)

218.1/8 = 27.3 2 5.2´5.25 .

:

N 8

V.. = V. * ¾¾¾ = 8 * ¾¾¾ = 9.14 /,

N - N1 8 - 1

[1] ( N1 - , ).

2. .

, , w = 14 /(*2):

q = f * w = 27.3 * 14 = 382 /. (3.96)

d = 600 , V = 1.2  ( 1.0...1.2 /).

5.2´5.25 :

l = (5.4 - D)/2 = (5.4 - 0.63)/2 = 2.39 젠 (3.97)

D = 630 - ( 10704 - 76 8696 - 74)

z = 0.22 : n = (5.20/0.22)*2 = 48 . 24 . .

d = 80 ( 3262-75), - ( 382/48 = 7.96 /) V = 1.6 /.

60 10..14 . d = 14 f = 1.54 2. 0.25...0.3%.

f = 0.25 * 27.3/100 = 0.0683 2 683 2.

n0 = f/f0 = 683/1.54 = 444 .

40 . 444/48 = 10 . e0 = 2.39/10 = 0.24  = 240 .

3. .

q = 382 / n = 3 , , q = 382/3 = 127.3 / = 0.13 3/. e = 5.25/3 = 1.75  ( 2.2).

:

5 ____ 5 _________

B = K * Öq2/b3 = 1.75 * Ö0.132/2.573 = 0.44 . (3.98)

b = 1.57 + a, a = 1.0...1.5;

K - , 2.1 .

h1 = 0.5 * B = 0.22 , 0.22 + 0.08 = 0.3 ; V = 0.56 /.

:

H * e 1.0 * 50

h = ¾¾¾ + 0.3 = ¾¾¾¾ + 0.3 = 0.8 , (3.99)

100 100

H - , ;

e - , %.

4. .

. f = 17.3 2 < 40 2, . :

3 __________ 3 ______________

H=1.73 * Öq2/(g*b2) + 0.2=1.73 * Ö0.3822/(9.81*0.72) + 0.2=0.74. (3.100)

q - , 3/;

b - , 0.7 .

f = 0.5 * 1.0 = 0.5 2 V=q/f = 0.382/0.5 = 0.764 /.

:

H = h + h + h + h = 0.6 + 1 + 2.5 + 0.5 = 4.6 젠 (3.101)

3.5.13.3. .

D = 18  H = 4.5 , 1145 3.

3.5.13.4. .

3 630-90 .

- 2 630-90.

- 1 1 1/2K-6.

, , .

3.6 , .


, .

3.2

. , - ., .-, . -, i . ., i ´ l, -Π - -. . - - -. - ,
. / / - . h h, Π ., .
. . . . .

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

70.19 70.19
1-2 357 10 0.6 0.56 0.002 1.06 0.02 -

1.062

0.5¾¾

2*9.81

0.03 0.05 70.16 70.14 69.6 69.58
2-3 178.5 2 0.6 0.33 0.002 0.91 0.01

0.912

1.5¾¾

2*9.81

0.06 0.07 69.91 69.90 69.58 69.57
3-4 0.2 .1 [14] ¾ ¾ 0.2 69.80 69.80 ¾ ¾
4-5 178.5 2 0.6 0.33 0.002 0.91 0.01 ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.01 69.70 69.69 69.37 69.36
5-6 357 16 0.6 0.56 0.002 1.06 0.03

.

1.062

3 ¾¾

2*9.81

1.062-.912

¾¾¾

2*9.81

0.17

0.02

0.22 69.50 69.47 68.94 68.91
6-7 L = 5.1 .1 [14] 0.3´0.56 0.17 0.17 69.47 69.30 ¾ ¾
7-8 357 12 0.6 0.56 0.002 1.06 0.02 ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.02 69.30 69.28 68.74 68.72
8-9 178.5 4 0.6 0.33 0.002 0.91 0.01

1.062

1.5¾¾

2*9.81

0.09 0.1 69.05 69.04 68.72 68.71
9-10 178.5 16 0.45 0.45 0.004 1.12 0.06 ..3.6.1. ¾ 0.12 0.18 68.92 68.86 ¾ ¾
0.6 . [3] ¾ ¾ 0.6 68.26 68.26 ¾ ¾
10-11 178.5 16 0.45 0.45 0.004 1.12 0.06 ..3.6.2. ¾ 0.12 0.18 68.14 68.08 ¾ ¾
11-12 178.5 4 0.6 0.33 0.002 0.91 0.01 ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.01 68.08 68.07 67.75 67.74
12-13 357 20 0.6 0.56 0.002 1.06 0.04

.

1.062

3 ¾¾

2*9.81

1.062-.912

¾¾¾

2*9.81

0.17

0.02

0.23 67.88 67.84 67.32 67.28
13-14 268 15 0.6 0.45 0.002 1.00 0.03

90

1.062

1.5¾¾

2*9.81

1.02

1.19¾¾

2*9.81

0.09

0.06

0.18 67.73 67.64 67.28 67.19
14-15

Z..=Z..+H/2=64.94+5/2=67.44

0.4 ..1 [14] ¾ ¾ 0.4 67.44 67.44 ¾ ¾
15-16 268 3 0.6 0.45 0.002 1.00 0.01 90

1.02

1.19¾¾

2*9.81

0.06 0.07 67.24 67.18 66.79 66.72
16-17 536 46 0.8 0.75 0.001 0.9 0.05

0.092

3 ¾¾

2*9.81

0.12 0.17 67.06 67.01 66.31 66.26
..4.6.3. ¾ 0.29 0.29 66.72 66.72 ¾ ¾
17-18 268 8 0.6 0.45 0.002 1 0.02 ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.02 66.71 66.69 66.26 66.24
18-19 268 16 0.5 0.5 0.005 1.38 0.08 ..3.6.4. ¾ 0.19 0.27 66.51 66.43 66.01 65.93
0.6 . [3] ¾ ¾ 0.6 65.83 65.83 ¾ ¾
19-20 178.5 16 0.45 0.45 0.004 1.12 0.06 ..3.6.5. ¾ 0.12 0.18 65.71 65.65 65.26 65.20
20-21 178.5 10 0.6 0.33 0.002 0.91 0.02 ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.02 65.53 65.51 65.20 65.18
21-22 357 60 0.6 0.56 0.002 1.06 0.12

.

1.062

3 ¾¾

2*9.81

1.062-.912

¾¾¾

2*9.81

0.17

0.02

0.31 65.32 65.20 64.76 64.64
22-23 0.4 .[3] ¾ ¾ 0.4 64.8 64.8 ¾ ¾
23-24 357 10 0.6 0.56 0.002 1.06 0.02 ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.02 64.80 64.78 64.24 64.22
24-25 178.5 3 0.6 0.33 0.002 0.91 0.01

90

1.062

1.5¾¾

2*9.81

0.912

1.19¾¾

2*9.81

0.09

0.05

0.15 64.55 64.49 64.22 64.16
25-26 L=31 0.4 .[3] ¾ ¾ 0.4 64.29 64.29 ¾ ¾
26-27 178.5 3 0.6 0.33 0.002 0.91 0.01 90

0.912

1.19¾¾

2*9.81

0.05 0.06 64.09 64.03 63.76 63.70
27-28 357 9 0.6 0.56 0.002 1.06 0.02

.

1.062

3 ¾¾

2*9.81

1.062-.912

¾¾¾

2*9.81

0.17

0.02

0.21 63.84 63.82 63.28 63.26

28-29 357 47 d=0.35 0.27 0.070 4.53 3.29

30 (d/R=0.4)

90 (d/R=1)

1.062

1 ¾¾

2*9.81

4.532

0.5¾¾

2*9.81

2*0.05*(

4.532

* (¾¾)

2*9.81

4.532

0.29¾¾

2*9.81

4.532

1 ¾¾

2*9.81

0.06

0.52

0.10

0.30

1.05

5.26 63.52 58.26 63.26 57.99

, .

3.3

. , ,
. d . h,

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

68.26 68.26 ¾ ¾
30-31 37 d=0.2 0.2 0.01 0.37 66.86 66.49 66.66 66.29
31-32 83 d=0.2 0.2 0.01 0.83 66.49 65.66 66.29 65.46
32-33
33-34 49 d=0.2 0.2
69.50 69.50 ¾ ¾
34-35 160 d=0.2 0.2 0.01 1.6 68.00 66.40 ¾ 66.20
35-36 66 ¾ ¾ 63.8 ¾

3.6.1. .

:

1. 90:

V12 0.912

h = z * ¾¾ = 1.19 * ¾¾¾ = 0.05 ;

2 * g 2 * 9.81

2. :

w2 p * d22 3.14 * 0.452

¾ = ¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.80 x = 0.15

w1 4*B1*H1 4*0.6*0.33

V22 1.122

h = x * ¾¾ = 0.15 * ¾¾¾ = 0.01 ;

2 * g 2 * 9.81

3. :

V22 - V12 1.122 - 0.912

h = ¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.022

2 * g 2 * 9.81

4. 90:

h = 2 * x * V22/(2 * g) = 2 * 0.29 * 1.122/(2 * 9.81) = 0.037 ;

:

åh1 = 0.05 + 0.01 + 0.022 + 0.037 = 0.12

3.6.2. .

:

1 -4 . . 4.6.1.

5. :

(V1 - V2)2 (1.12 - 0.91)2

h = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.002 ;

2 * g 2 * 9.81

:

åh2 = 0.05 + 0.01 + 0.022 + 0.037 + 0.002 = 0.12

3.6.3. .

Q1 = 536 /; V1 = 0.9 /; B1 = 0.80 ; H1 = 0.75 ;

Q2 = Q1 = 536 /; V2 = 1.39 /; d2 = 0.70 ;

Q3 = Q1 = 536 /; V3 = 0.68 /; d3 = 1 ;

Q4 = Q1 = 536 /; V4 = 0.17 /; D = 1.25 ; H = 0.80 ;

Q5 = Q1/2 = 268 /; V5 = 1 /; B5 = 0.46 ; H5 = 0.45 .

:

1. 90:

V12 0.92

h = x * ¾¾ = 1.19 * ¾¾¾ = 0.049 .

2 * g 2 * 9.81

2. :

w2 p * d2 3.14 * 0.72

¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.64 . x = 0.23

w1 4 * B1 * H1 4 * 0.8 * 0.75

V2 1.392

h = x * ¾¾ = 0.2 * ¾¾¾ = 0.023 .

2 * g 2 * 9.81

3. :

V22 - V12 1.392 - 0.92

h = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.057 .

2 * g 2 * 9.81

4. 90:

h = 2 * x * V22/(2 * g) = 2 * 0.29 * 1.392/(2 * 9.81) = 0.057

5. :

(V2 - V3)2 (1.39 - 0.68)2

h = K * ¾¾¾¾ = 0.9 * ¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.023 .

2 * g 2 * 9.81

6. :

Q 0.536

V = ¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.17 /;

p * D * H 3.14 * 1.25 * 0.8

(V3 - V4)2 (0.68 - 0.17)2

h = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.013 .

2 * g 2 * 9.81

7. :

3 * w5 3 * B5 * H5 3 * 0.6 * 0.45

¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.26 ; x = 0.4

w4 p * D4 * H4 3.14 * 1.25 * 0.8

V52 12

h = x * ¾¾ = 0.4 * ¾¾¾ = 0.02 .

2 * g 2 * 9.81

8. :

V52 - V42 12 - 0.172

h = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.049 .

2 * g 2 * 9.81

:

åh =0.049+0.023+0.057+0.057+0.023+0.013+0.02+0.049=0.29 .

3.6.4. .

:

1. 90:

V12 12

h = x * ¾¾ = 1.19 * ¾¾¾ = 0.06 ;

2 * g 2 * 9.81

2. :

w2 p * d22 3.14 * 0.72

¾ = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.64 z = 0.23

w1 4 * B1 * H1 4 * 0.8 * 0.75

V22 1.392

h = z * ¾¾ = 0.23 * ¾¾¾ = 0.023 ;

2 * g 2 * 9.81

3. :

V22 - V12 1.392 - 0.92

h = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.057 ;

2 * g 2 * 9.81

4. 90:

h = 2 * z * V22/(2 * g) = 2 * 0.29 * 1.392/(2 * 9.81) = 0.057 .

:

åh1 = 0.049 + 0.023 + 0.057 + 0.057 = 0.19 .

3.6.4. .

..3.6.2. åh4 = 0.12 .

3.7. .

1:500. , . , .

, , , .

. , .

, : ; .

. .

. , 2.0 .



-.

4.

- , 12 ´ 21 . : , , , , , . - ( - 7.23 ). ; -, , - . . - . 700 . .

- . -. 70 - 150C. , .

- . . 80% , 20% . , . 10% , .. . , - .


4.1. .

:

0.25 * Q񠠠 0.25 * 918.9

W = ¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 46 3,

n1 5

Q - 3/;

n1 - .

i = 0.1 , . . . .

4.2. -.

- , , .

- -600 (1 1 ).

:

    , 3/..........................48000

    , ...........................................................625

    , 1/........................................24

    , ............................................1

    , /.....................1500

    ......................................60

    , ...............................................................................1800

    ,

    ..................................................................................2170

    ....................................................................................1340

    ...................................................................................810


4.3. .

8 (2 1 ); 3-6 (1 1 ) -3 (1 1 ). 8 , .

8 . .

, , .

[2] :

-   V = 0.7 - 1.5 /;

-   V = 1.0 - 2.5 /.

, , , 0.3 - 0.5 /2.

, - , W = 180 .

, .

:

    -  320-52120-00, 3.2 ;

    - 3.2-5.1, 3.2 , - 3.2 .


4.4. .

:

Q1 = 918.87 3/.

Q1 n = 2.

q1, /, :

1000 * Q1

q1 = ¾¾¾¾, /񠠠 (4.1)

3600 * n

1000 * 918.87

q1 = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 127.62 /.

3600 * 2

q1, V=1 - 2.5 /, [2], d=400.

V = 1.02 /; i = 0.004.

h, , :

h = 1.05 * i * l, 젠 (4.2)

i - , [16];

l - , ;

1.05 - , .

h = 1.05 * 0.004 * 2225 = 9.35 .

:

H = H + h + h + h, , (4.3)

H - , .

H L2, , L1.

L1 = L - a = 55.87 - 2 = 53.87 ,

L - ;

L = 55.87 ;

a = 2 - .

H = L2 - L1 = 70.19 - 53.87 = 16.32 .

h - ; h = 2;

h - ; h = 1.

H = 16.32 + 2 + 9.35 + 1 = 28.67 .

: 2 1 .

:

Q1 918.87

¾¾ = ¾¾¾ = 459.4 3/

2 2

H = 28.7 .

[ ] 8 :

Q = 864 3/;

H = 29 ;

n = 960 /;

= 60%;

115 ;

540 ;

1000 .

:

A) - . Q = Q1 = 918.87 2/. q1 q1:

1000 * Q1 1000 * 918.87

q1 = q1 = ¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 127.62 /.

3600 * m 3600 * 2

:

q1 = q1 = 127.62 /,

H1 = 28.7 .

B) - .

Q2 = Q1 = 918.87 3/.

, , , , , , . H2 .

H2 = H + h + h + h + h,

h - , :

h = 1.05 * ia * la = 1.05 * 0.012 * 750 = 9 ,

ia - q.. ; i = 0.012; V = 2 /.

:

q.. = Q1 = 918.87 3/;

la - ; la = 750 .

h - , :

h = 1.05 * i * l = 1.05 * 0.004 * 1475 = 6.2

, :

H2 = 16.32 + 2 + 9 + 6.2 + 1 = 34.52 .

:

-   Q = Q1 = 918.87 3/, H = 28.7 ;

-   Q = Q1 = 918.87 3/, H = 34.52 .

, , , . : Ql = 1803.2 3/. , . 8. 400 . , 550 .

h., , (4.2):

h. = 1.05 * 0.0028 * 2225 = 6.54

i. - , [16] d = 550

1000 * 1803.2

q1 = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 250.44 /,

3600 * 2

i. = 0.0028; V. = 1.05 /.

(4.3).

L1. = L. - a = 55.08 - 2 = 53.08 ,

L. - ;

L. = 55.08 ;

H. = L2 - L1. = 70.19 - 53.08 = 17.11 .

H = 17.11 + 2 + 6.54 + 1 = 26.65 .

q = 500.88 /; i. = 0.0107; V. = 2.11 /.

h. = 1.05 * 0.0107 * 750 = 8.43 ;

h. = 1.05 * 0.0028 * 1475 = 4.34 ;

H. = 17.11 + 2 + 8.43 + 4.34 + 1 = 32.88 .

, , .

.4.1.

1)  Q-H, Q-h, Q-N 8.

2)  å(Q-H)1+2 2 .

3)  å(Q-H)1+2+3 3 .

4)  (Q-H). :

H1 = H + a1 * Q2 = 16.3 + 0.0000146 * Q2 Q, 3/ H,

H1 - H

a1 = ¾¾¾¾ 100 16.5

Q12 200 16.9

Q1 - 3/ 400 18.6

28.7 - 16.3 600 21.6

a1 = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.0000146 800 25.6

918.92 1000 30.9

1200 37.3

1400 44.9

(Q-H). :

Q. = H + a2 * Q2 = 16.3 + 0.0000215 * Q2 Q, 3/ H,

H2 - H

a2 = ¾¾¾¾; Q2 - 3/ 100 16.5

Q22 200 17.2

34.5 - 16.3 400 19.7

a2 = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.0000215 600 24.0

918.92 800 30.1

1000 37.8

1200 47.3

1400 58.4


(Q-H). :

Q .. = H. + a3 * Q2 = 17.11 + 0.0000029 * Q2. Q, 3/ H,

H - H.

a3 = ¾¾¾¾¾; Q - 3/ 200 17.2

Q2 400 17.6

26.65 - 17.11 600 18.2

a2 = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.0000029 800 19.0

1803.22 1000 20.0

1200 21.3

1400 22.8

1600 24.5

1800 26.5

2000 28.7

2200 31.2

2400 33.8

(Q-H).. :

Q .. = H. + a4 * Q2 = 17.11 + 0.0000048 * Q2. Q, 3/ H,

H. - H.

a4 = ¾¾¾¾¾; Q - 3/ 200 17.3

Q2 400 17.9

32.88 - 17.11 600 18.8

a2 = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.0000048 800 20.2

1803.22 1000 21.9

1200 24.0

1400 26.5

1600 29.4

1800 32.7

2000 36.3

2200 40.3

2400 44.8

(×)A - , .

(×)B .

(×)C .

(×)D .

D - , .

(×)A1,2 - , .

E, F - , h, l .

(×)A1 - , .

4.5. .

() , .

.


-
C 1

, , .

 

, - - - - . .

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1.2 % .2

1.

260 ¾ ¾ ¾ 260

2.

. . 2 8389 ¾ ¾ ¾ 8389
. . 2 ¾ 1 13 ¾ 14
. . 1 8649 1620 2781 ¾ 13050
. . 2 161 30 24 ¾ 215
. 2 17199 1651 2818 ¾ 21668
3% .2

3.

516 49 85 ¾ 650
. 2+3 17715 1700 2903 ¾ 22318
12% .2+3

4.

2125 204 349 ¾ 2678
1.5% .2+3

5.

335 ¾ ¾ ¾ 335
. 1-5 20435 1904 3252 ¾ 25591
1.5% .1-5

6.

307 29 ¾ ¾ 336
. 1-6 20742 1933 3252 ¾ 25927

7. :

a)   .

b)  -

298

129

119

52

¾

¾

179

78

596

259

. 1-7 21169 2104 3252 257 26782
1% . 1-7

8.

¾ ¾ ¾ 268 268
2.5% .1-7

9.

¾ ¾ ¾ 670 670

21169 2104 3252 1195 27720
5% . 1-9 ¾ ¾ ¾ 1386 1386
29106
15% .6 50

C 2

, , .

 

, - - - - . .

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1.2 % .2

1.

500 ¾ ¾ ¾ 500

2.

. . 2 11416 ¾ ¾ ¾ 11416
. . 2 ¾ 4 50 ¾ 54
. . 3 24630 1818 3608 ¾ 30056
. . 4 76 15 5 ¾ 96
. 2 36122 1837 3663 ¾ 41622
3% .2

3.

1084 55 110 ¾ 1249
. 2+3 37206 1892 3773 ¾ 42871
12% .2+3

4.

4465 227 453 ¾ 5145
10% .2+3

5.

3721 189 377 ¾ 4287
10% .2+3

6.

372 19 38 ¾ 429
1.5% .2+3

7.

643 ¾ ¾ ¾ 643
. 1-7 46907 2327 4641 ¾ 53875
1.5% .1-7

8.

704 35 ¾ ¾ 739
. 1-8 47611 2362 4641 ¾ 54614

9. :

a)   .

b)  -

573

273

229

109

¾

¾

344

164

1146

546

. 1-9 48457 2700 4641 508 56306
1% . 1-9

10.

¾ ¾ ¾ 563 563

0.75% .1-9

11.

¾ ¾ ¾ 422 422
2.5% .1-9

12.

¾ ¾ ¾ 1408 1408

48457 2700 4641 2901 58699
5% . 1-12 ¾ ¾ ¾ 2935 2935
61634
15% .8 111

1

13050 . .

1998 .

, -, , . .
, . - - -

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

.19 2 . 46 6 10 ¾ 62
.34 30 39.2 3.5 8.3 ¾ 51
.35 491.4 98.5 167.1 ¾ 757
1984 . 576.6 108 185.4 ¾ 870
1998 . (. .) 8649 1620 2781 ¾ 13050

2

214.5 . .

1998 .

, , , . .
, . - - -

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

. 44 10.7 2.0 1.6 ¾ 14.3
1984 ., . 10.7 2.0 1.6 ¾ 14.3
1998 ., . . 160.5 30 24 ¾ 214.5

3

30056 . . 1998 .

, , , . .
, . - - -

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

. 18 - 10 3 11 ¾ 24
. 19 (2.) 46 6 10 ¾ 62
27, . 120 1.22 ¾ ¾ ¾ 1.22
, . 21 (2.) 92 6 10 ¾ 108
, . 30 286 22 5 ¾ 313
, . 34 (2.) 78.4 7 16.6 ¾ 102
, . 66.27 0.42 ¾ ¾ ¾ 0.42
27, . 102 (2.) 190 ¾ ¾ ¾ 190
, . 36 (2.) 81.8 7 5.2 ¾ 94
, . 40 (2.) 38 ¾ ¾ ¾ 38
, . 38 (8.) 331 ¾ ¾ ¾ 331
, . 39 212.7 34.6 86.6 ¾ 333.9
, . 41 48.9 8.8 16.1 ¾ 73.8
, . 32 110.2 17.8 58.5 ¾ 186.5
, . 20 6.8 2.0 0.1 ¾ 8.9
, . 14 41 4 6 ¾ 51
, . 45 67.6 3 15.4 ¾ 86
1984 ., . 1642.04 121.2 240.5 ¾ 2003.74
1998 ., . . 24630 1818 3608 ¾ 30056

4

96 . .

1998 .

, , , . .
, . - - -

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

. 44 5.1 1 0.3 ¾ 6.4
1984 ., . 5.1 1 0.3 ¾ 6.4
1998 ., . . 76 15 5 ¾ 96

5

2729 . .

1998 .

, , , . .
, . - - -

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

. 15 - , 1984 . 122.8 13.1 42.4 ¾ 178.3
, 1998 ., . . 1842 196.5 6.36 ¾ 2674.5
. . 3 , 1998 ., . . 3.6 50 53.6
1998 ., . . 1842 201 686 ¾ 2729

1

8389 . .

: 1, 3.

1998 .

-, - . - ., . , .

 

/ ,

 

. . ..

..

. ..

..

..

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

.1.

1. 1-44 Ϡ 4-5-82 II . -

1000 3

125 82.4 3.04

79.36

26.40

10300 380

9920

3300

3680
2. 1-984

100 3

100.3 229 133

96.0

61.2

22969 13340

9629

6138

19478
3. 1-968

. :

- ;

- .

100 3

1000 3

135.4

108.3

46

18.9

46

¾

¾

18.9

6.59

6228

2047

6228

¾

¾

2047

714

6228

714

4. 1-1185

100 3

1218.7 11.6 7.4

4.20

2.73

14137 9018

5119

3327

12345
5. 1-169 II .

1000 3

13.5 156 7.64

148.09

61.4

2106 103

1999

829

932
6. Ϡ 4-4-82 .1 1-195 - 23697 0.29 ¾ ¾ 6872 ¾ ¾ ¾
7. Ϡ 4-5-82 1-195

1000 3

4.1 13.2 1.59

11.34

3.63

54 7

47

15

22

1984 .

64713 29076

28761

14323

43399

.2.

8. Ϡ 4-5-82 23-4

1 3

55.5 3.52 1.32 ¾ 195 73 ¾ 73
9. Ϡ 4-4-82 -100

1 3

55.5 14.3 ¾ ¾ 794 ¾ ¾ ¾

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

10. Ϡ 4-5-82

:

d=800 ;

d=1000 ;

d=1250 ;

d=1400 .

1

1

1

1

830

795

820

1270

2.39

3.11

3.73

4.63

0.99

1.26

1.57

1.52

0.49

0.15

0.68

0.20

0.80

0.24

1.10

0.33

1984

2473

3059

5880

822

1002

1287

1930

407

125

541

159

656

197

1397

419

947

1161

1484

2349

11. 27 .49

- :

d=800 :

d=1000 ;

d=1250 ;

d=1400 .

1;

1;

1;

1.

830

795

820

1270

61

78

101

118

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

50630

62010

82820

149860

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

12. Ϡ 4-4-82 23-123 - . 50 254 6.96

5.08

1.52

12700 348

254

76

424
13. - 1 . 50 311 ¾ ¾ 15550 ¾ ¾ ¾
14. . 50 25 ¾ ¾ 1250 ¾ ¾ ¾

1984 .

389205 5462

3255

976

6438

1 2 1984 .

453918 34538

32016

15299

49837
1998 . i=15, . . 6809
1998 . i=7, . . 349
(10% ) 681
7490
(12%) 899
1998., . . 8389

1


/ , . . -

1

2

3

4

5

- ., - 1, II .

.1.

1. II .

1000 3

125

V1 = V * L =

= 33.75 * 3715 = 1253813

2.

100 3

100.3

V2 = 0.08 * V1 =

= 0.08 * 125381 = 100313

3.

:

- ;

- .

100 3

1000 3

135.4

108.3

V3 = 0.1 * (V1 + V2) =

13541 3;

V4 = 0.8 * (V1 + V2) =

= 108330 3.

4. ,

100 3

1218.7

V5 = V3 + V4 = 121871 3

5. ,

1000 3

13.5

V6 = V1 + V2 - V3 - V4 =

= 13541 3

6. 23697

P = V6 * g = 13541 * 1.75 =

= 23697

7. ,

1000 3

4.1

V7 = 0.3 * V6 = 0.3 * 13541 = 4062 3

.2.

8.

3

55.5

V = 15 * L =

= 15 * 3.7 = 55.5

9.

:

d = 800 ;

d = 1000 ;

d = 1250 ;

d = 1400 .

830

795

820

1270

10. . . . 50
11. . 50

2

14 . .

:

a)  13 ..

b)  1 ..

1998 .

, , ., . , .
., . . - . - -
, - -
. . ..

..

. ..

..

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

Ϡ 4-6-82 7-281-2 .7 .4 8 . 1 1 1.98 764 30.5 18.1

4.06

1.9

764 30.5 18.1

4.06

1.9

764
(2%) 15
779
(1%) 8
787
(4%) 31
818
- (1.2%) 10
828
(1% ) 8
836
1998 ., . . 13
31
1998 ., . . 0.5 0.3
(80%) 0.4
0.9
(12%) 0.1
1.0
, . . 14

3

11416 . .

: 1.

1998 .

-, - . - ., . , .

 

/ ,

 

. . ..

..

. ..

..

..

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

.1.

1. 1-44 Ϡ 4-5-82 II . -

1000 3

365 82.4 3.04

79.36

26.40

30076 1110

28966

9636

10746
2. 1-984

100 3

292 229 133

96.0

61.2

66868 38836

28032

17870

56706
3. 1-968

. :

- ;

- .

100 3

1000 3

394

315

46

18.9

46

¾

¾

18.9

6.59

18124

5859

18124

¾

¾

5954

2076

18124

2076

4. 1-1185

100 3

3549 11.6 7.4

4.20

2.73

41168 26263

14906

9689

35952
5. 1-169 II .

1000 3

39 156 7.64

148.09

61.4

6084 298

5776

2395

2693
6. Ϡ 4-4-82 .1 1-195 - 69017 0.29 ¾ ¾ 20015 ¾ ¾ ¾
7. Ϡ 4-5-82 1-195

1000 3

11.8 13.2 1.59

11.34

3.63

156 19

134

43

62

1984 .

188350 84631

83768

41709

126359

.2.

8. Ϡ 4-5-82 23-4

1 3

450 3.52 1.32 ¾ 1584 594 ¾ 594
9. Ϡ 4-4-82 -100

1 3

450 14.3 ¾ ¾ 6435 ¾ ¾ ¾

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

10. Ϡ 4-5-82

:

d=200 ;

d=250 ;

d=300 ;

d=350 ;

d=400 ;

d=450 .

1

1

1

1

1

1

19195

5670

3100

405

1160

845

4.11

5.21

7.68

9.9

11.6

13

0.49

0.58

0.61

0.74

0.84

0.93

¾

¾

0.56

0.17

0.56

0.17

0.59

0.18

0.68

0.20

78892

29541

23808

4010

13456

10985

9406

3289

1891

230

974

786

¾

¾

1736

527

227

69

684

209

575

169

9406

3289

2418

299

1183

955

11. Ϡ 4-5-82

- :

d=500 ;

d=600 ;

d=700 .

1

1

1

65

40

10

1.81

2.26

3.06

0.98

1.1

1.5

0.50

0.15

0.76

0.23

1.04

0.31

118

90

31

64

44

15

33

10

30

9

10

3

74

53

18

12. 27 .49

- :

d=500 :

d=600 ;

d=700 .

1;

1;

1.

65

40

10

40

44.4

51

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

2600

1776

510

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

¾

13. Ϡ 4-4-82 23-123 - 1 . 406 254 6.96

5.08

1.52

103124 2826

2063

617

3443
14. 27 .58 1 130 123 ¾ ¾ 15990 ¾ ¾ ¾
15. - 1 . 406 311 ¾ ¾ 126266 ¾ ¾ ¾
14. . 406 25 ¾ ¾ 10150 ¾ ¾ ¾

1984 .

429366 20119

5358

1613

21732

1 2 1984 .

617716 104750

89126

43322

148091
1998 . i=15, . . 9266
1998 . i=7, . . 1037
(10% ) 927
10193
(12%) 1223
1998., . . 11416

3


/ , . . -

1

2

3

4

5

- ., - 1, II .

.1.

1. II .

1000 3

365

V1 = V * L =

= 12 * 30430 = 3651603

2.

100 3

292

V2 = 0.08 * V1 =

= 0.08 * 365160 = 292133

3.

:

- ;

- .

100 3

1000 3

394

315

V3 = 0.1 * (V1 + V2) =

39437 3;

V4 = 0.8 * (V1 + V2) =

= 315498 3.

4. ,

100 3

3549

V5 = V3 + V4 = 354935 3

5. ,

1000 3

39

V6 = V1 + V2 - V3 - V4 =

= 39438 3

6. 69017

P = V6 * g = 39438 * 1.75 =

= 69017

7. ,

1000 3

11.8

V7 = 0.3 * V6 = 0.3 * 39438 = 11831 3

.2.

8.

3

450

V = 15 * L =

= 15 * 30 = 450

9.

:

d = 200 ;

d = 250 ;

d = 300 ;

d = 350 ;

d = 400 ;

d = 450 .

19195

5670

3100

405

1160

845

9.

:

d = 500 ;

d = 600 ;

d = 700 .

65

40

10

10. . . . 406
11. . 406

4

54 . .

:

a)  50 ..

b)  4 ..

1998 .

, , ., . , .
., . . - . - -
, - -
. . ..

..

. ..

..

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

Ϡ 4-6-82 7-281-2 .7 .4 8 . 4 1 1.98 764 30.5 18.1

4.06

1.9

3056 122 72.4

16.24

7.6

3056
(2%) 61
3117
(1%) 31
3148
(4%) 126
3274
- (1.2%) 39
3313
(1% ) 31
3344
1998 ., . . 50
122
1998 ., . . 1.8 1.1
(80%) 1.44
3.2
(12%) 0.4
3.6
, . . 54

:

1..

- . .

- . . 1
-

- , 3/

- , . .

- , . 3

1 , /

,

-,

.

-, . .

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1. 38084 365 13901 5 69 1000 69
69
-- (20%) 14
83

2.   .

, , . :

2.72 * Q * H 2.72 * 13901 * 33.5

= ¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 2483645 *.

h * h⠠ 0.60 * 0.85

    2.72 - *, 1000 3 1 = 1.0;

    Q - , . 3;

    H - . , ;

    h - ;

    h - .


:

N1 * n1+ N2 * n2 +N3 * n3 114 * 5 + 7.8 * 2 + 4 * 2

åN = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 698 .

cos j 0.85

.

, .

,

*

1 *

1

1

2

3

4

5

13901

698

1.0

10

2483645

6980

2483645
, . . 2484

3.   .

, . .

, . .
, .

. . 11 ., . .

1

2

3

4

5

, , , 748
5 700 700 39
787
(90%) 708
1495
(10% ) 150
1645

.

, . .
, .

. . 11 ., . .

1

2

3

4

5

:

10

14

10

7

6

600

750

750

750

650

600

750

750

750

650

66

116

75

58

43

358
(90%) 322
680
(10% ) 68
748

- .

, . .
, .

. . 11 ., . .

1

2

3

4

5

:

;

;

;

.

-

-

3

2

2

2

4

6

4

12

700

750

700

800

500

400

300

900

700

750

700

800

500

400

300

900

23

17

15

18

22

26

13

119

253
(90%) 228
481
(10% ) 48
529

4. .

, , . . , % , . .

1

2

3

4

5

1. 8389 14.4 1208
2. 930 14.4 134
3. 765 14.4 110
4.

:

- ;

- .

7948

3407

6

14.4

477

491

5. : 14 18 3
6. 215 14.4 31
21668 2454
3664 6 220

:

/;

;

;

.

11416

30056

2729

96

14.4

14.4

18

14.4

1644

4328

491

14

44297 6477
11849 6 711
9862

5. .

- , :

1)  - ;

2)  ;

3)  , , , ;

4)  .

1)  ( 11 ) - - 529 . . .

2)  38.5%:

0.385 * ( + .1) = 0.385 * (1645 + 529) = 837 . .

3)  :

0.3 *  = 0.3 * 9862 = 2959 . .

4)  10%:

0.1 * (.1 + .2 + .3) = 0.2 * (529 + 837 + 2959) = 865 . .

:

= 529 + 837 + 2959 + 865 = 5190 . .

6. .

= 0.2 * ( + + + + ), . .

- , . .;

    - , . .;

    - , . .;

    - , . .;

    - , . .

= 0.2 * (83 + 2484 + 1645 + 9862 + 5190) = 3853 ..

7. .

1% :

P = 0.01 * 3853 = 39 . .

.

, . .

. ,

.

,

%

1

2

3

4

83 0.01 0.4
2484 0.18 10.7
1645 0.12 7.1
9862 0.72 42.6
5190 0.38 22.4
3853 0.28 16.6
39 0.01 0.2
= 23156 1.7 100%

:

= /Q = 23156/13901 = 1.7 ./3.


-

1.   - 13901 . 3/;

2.   - 8872 . 3/;

3.   - 29106 . .;

4.   - 3.28 /3;

5.   - 13050 . .;

6.   - 24308 3/;

7.   - 540 /3*;

8.   - 8389 ..;

9.   - 3715 ;

10. 1 - 2.26 ../

11. - 23156 . .;

12. 1 3 - 1.7 /3.


.

:

1)  13.9 .3/.

2)  :

-   - 29106 . .;

-   - 23156 . .

.

V = 13.9 .3/

/xi,

Ai,

, Si, /3

, mi, /

/3

./

Mi = Ai * mi

./

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1 156.2 2171.2 20.0 0.05 108.6
2 140.5 1953 3.0 0.33 644.5

2

: M = å Mi = 753.1 ./

i=1

:

Y = g * sn * M,

g - , g = 4 . /.;

sn - , sn = 1.5;

M - ;

M = 753.1 ./;

Y = 4 * 1.5 * 753.1 = 4519 ./


.

V = 13.9 .3/

/xi,

Ai,

, Si, /3

, mi, /

/3

./

Mi = Ai * mi

./

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1 5 69.5 20.0 0.05 3.48
2 5 69.5 3.0 0.33 22.9

2

: M = å Mi = 26.42 ./

i=1

:

Y = g * sn * M,

M - ;

M = 26.42 ./

Y = 4 * 1.5 * 26.42 = 159 ./.

.

1.

= Y - Y = 4519 - 159 =

= 4360 ./

2. () = = 4360 ./
3. = 29106 ./
4. C = 23156 ./
5.

= + * = 23156 + 0.12 *

* 29106 = 26649 ./

6. ()

R = - = 4360 - 26649 =

= -22289 ./


:

I.   (NPV):

P

NPV = å ¾¾¾ - ic

ꠠ (1 + r)

P - ( );

ic - ;

r - ( , % );

NPV ³ 0, .

II. :

P

Pi = å ¾¾¾ : ic

(1 + r)

i ³ 1, .

III. :

PN

ARR = ¾¾¾¾¾¾

1/2 * (ic - PV)

PN - ( );

PV - .

ARR ࠠ ..

= ¾¾¾

cp + c0

ARR ³ , .

23%. r = 19%. 35%.

.

I II III IV V

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1 31261 37512 45016 54019 64822
2 23156 27787 33345 40014 48016
3 () 1972 2367 2840 3408 4090
4 6133 7358 8831 10597 12716
5 , 35% 2147 2575 3091 3709 4451
6 3986 4783 5740 6888 8265
7 5958 7150 8580 10296 12355

P

I.   NPV = å ¾¾¾ - ic = -29106 + 5958 * 0.8403 + 7150 * 0.7062 +

(1 + r)

+ 8580 * 0.593 + 10296 * 0.487 + 12355 * 0.4191 = -29106 + 25336 = -3770

NPV < 0, .

Pꠠ 25336

II. Pi = å ¾¾¾ : ic = ¾¾¾ = 0.87 < 1 - .

(1 + r)ꠠ 29106

PN 8868

III. ARR = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾ = 0.61 > 0.23

1/2 * (ic - PV) 0.5 * 29106

.

: , .



6.1. .

.

- .

- , , , . . , , , , .

, , , .

. - , , . : .. - ., III - 4 - 80 . ., . ., .. - ..

(), (), () .

, 12.3.006-75* . .

2.09.04-87 ., II-4-79* .,  245-71 ..

6.2. . .

, , , . : , , , . :

) :

-   -;

-   ;

-   ;

-   ;

-   , ;

-   ;

-   ;

) :

-   ;

-   , ;

-   , ;

) :

-   ;

) :

-   ;

-   - .

, , .

, .

6.1.


6.1.

/

1

2

3

4

5

1. , -
2. --
3. -
4. , ,

-1.5 3/3

-
5. . - U = 42
6. -, , 5 - 35 -
7. , 60 - 75% -
8. ,

- 80 ,

. - 92 .

9.

1.

2.

3.

- 0.5%

.. - 150

- 0.5-1%

.. - 150

- 1-1.5%

.. - 130

10. 4. , ,

-1 /3

-

- , .

6.3.1. .

, . , , . , [ ] , 6.2.

6.2.

-
.. - . . -
t; C %

. t; C % . . .
17´19 30´60 £0.3 13´20 20´23 30´60 0.2´ ´0.3

£3 C

t . 13

- . 25% .

.

- £ 20 /3. [ ] :

-   - 16;

-   - 3;

-   - 50%.

- , - .

- 12- . 6- .

6.3.2. .

, , .

[ ] [ ] :

-   ;

-   ;

-   ;

-   , ;

-   .

6.3.3. .

[ ] [ ] :

-   - 50 ;

-   :

a)  - 200 ;

b)  - 75 ;

c)  - 50 ;

d)  - 300 .

, - - . . 0.5 .

-5% . , , £0.3 .

. .

6.3.4. - .

. , . - .

. 6.3.

6.3.

/ . - . - 1 .. - . 1 .
1. , , , III 3 7
2. III 5 15
3. I 5 15
4. I 15 20

6.4. .

6.4.1. , .

:

1) - , , ;

2) , . - ³3 ;

3) ;

4) , 2 , , - ;

5) 3 -  . . , , ;

6) , , .

6.4.2. , .

[ ]. , , . , , .

, .

. .

, , .

6.4.3. .

, , [ ] . 3- . 8 , - 12 . 34 , - 34 .

. 1 3 . .

, , , .

6.5. .

, . , , , , , . , ( ).

. - .

. , , , , . , , , . . , , .

() -1, -Β, -5 , .

.

, , .

6.6. .

Ē, .. , . 1 2.

. -5, -10, - -5. , , . . 1.4 ; - 0.6 ; - 1.1 . .


6.7. , .

- , . , . [ ], [ ], [ ],[ ].

6.7.1. .

 

, , , . .

. , , . .

. , .

, , . 120-220 , , , 2 . , 12 . .

, , 0.5 .

(). , , .

.

.

0.75 .

6.7.2. .

, 5 , [ ] 53. . , , , :

a)  ;

b)  ;

c)  , ;

d)  .

. . .

6.7.3. .

.

, , , .

. , . 2 , .

. , . , . 5 . 30. .

6.7.4. .

1.5 . .

. . . . 5-6 .

, , .

() .

, .

6.7.5. - .

- ..

, , . ( ) 12 .

.

. , 100 , . . , . , , . . , .

, , .

.

, , , , , . .

6.7.6. .

, , . , .

. .

, . , , , .

( , ) . -, . , , .

.

, .



.

    :

    - 1200 ;

    - 3715 ;

    - 5.4 .

.

d + 1 = 1.2 + 1 = 2.2 .

6 1 : m = 1 : 0.75.

10.3


1.0


2.2


:

:

2.2

10.3

, 2

33.75

, 3

125381

, F0

F0 = Fk * .. =

= 1.24 * 33.75 = 42

, 5

0.5 , 5 , h = Ö42 = 6.5 , .

 -   - 201 (  - 46) :

    - 0.5 3;

    :

    - 10 ,

    - 6.6 ;

    - 10 ;

    - 14.3 ;

    - 5.5 .

.

, - 1.4 2.13 .

:

l = X0 + a + l + l0 = 0.7 + 0.8 + 7.3 + 1.5 = 10.3 ,

l0 - , l0 = 1.5 ;

l - , , l = 7.3 ;

X0 - .

:

H ³ h + h.. + h + h = 8.4 + 1 + 1.4 + 2 = 12.8 ,

h.. - - 1 ;

h - ;

h - .

.

- 5363

1

2

22
6.5
12.5
, 22
2.9
, 6.9
10.3
21.3
2.7
11.5
2.2

.

 

:

-   ,

-   ,

-   ,

-   ,

-   ,

-   ,

-   ,

-   ,

-   ,

-   .

, .

. :

* t - Vꠠ 76.1 * 8.2 - 2

l = ¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾ = 36.9 ,

F 33.75

- ,3/;

t - ;

V - ;

F - , 2.

,

t 8.2 * 2

l = ¾ = ¾¾¾ = 34.2 ,

t1 0.48

t - ;

t1 - 1 , .

t1 , 1 , :

, .- 1 ࠠ 2.4

t1 = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾ = 0.48 .

堠 5

. l .

m L l:

L 3715

m = ¾ = ¾¾ = 109 .

l砠 34.2

L:

T = (m + n - p - 1) * a + åt = (109 + 4 - 3 - 1) * 1 + 10 = 119 .,

m - ;

- ( = 1);

n - ;

- ;

åt - .

.


.

# . - . - -
. . - . - . .

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

#2-1-7

100 3

11.5 -201 2.8 3.4 32.2 39.1

#10-4

1 34.2 -5363 ¾ 0.26 ¾ 8.9

#2-1-46

100 3

0.75 ¾ ¾ 8.4 ¾ 6.3

#2-1-31

1 3

1 ¾ ¾ 1.25 ¾ 1.3

#10-2

1 34.2 -5363 ¾ 2.4 ¾ 82.1

#10-27

1 . 0.5 ¾ ¾ 9.5 ¾ 4.8

#2-1-44

1 3

115.4 ¾ ¾ 0.58 ¾ 66.9

#10-6

- 1 34.2 ¾ ¾ 1.05 ¾ 35.9

#2-1-21

100 3

10.4 493 0.72 0.72 7.5 7.5

#2-1-45

100 2

3.5 . ¾ 2.4 ¾ 8.4

#10-6

. . 1 34.2 ¾ ¾ 1.05 ¾ 35.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.


 

: .

: , ().

:

, / 260
120
60
40
40

, .2.

18
, 1110

, , .

1. .

(, , ) , .

, . 10 /2, - 2 /2.

, .

:

-   ;

-   ;

-   , ;

-   ( , );

-   ;

-   ;

-   .

:

-   ;

-   , ;

-   ;

-   .

, ( ).

, , :

-   ;

-   ;

-   ;

-   ;

-   ;

-   ;

-   ,

:

-   ;

-   ;

-   ;

-   ;

-   ;

-   , ( , ..);

-   .

:

-   ;

-   ;

-   ;

-   ;

-   - .

, , , , , , , . , , , , .

.

.

, 17 /2, 15 /2. , 6 /2 3-5/2.

34 , - 21 .

, .

, , , .

.

, .

(30 /2) , , . - 5 3 .

, , , , . . . . .

, . . -3 , . , - . .

120-150.

- -50, .

, , .

, , , , .

2. .

, ( 70-90 ), (10% ).

. .

:

-   ;

-   ;

-   ;

-   ;

-   , , ( 15 /2);

-   ( ) (25% ).

, 2, .

,

, 2

4- 14730 2760 2790 82
13920 2850 2770 82
24540 2900 2780 145

.

-

, 2

, /2.

, 2

1

2

3

4

5

1. 180 130.5 4 94
2. . 40 215.7 4 34.5
3. 40 249.4 4 39.9
4. 120 130.5 4 62.6
5. , , 180+40+40 82+82+145 15 357.6
: 588.6
6. ( ) (25% ) ¾ ¾ ¾ 147.2
1-6 ..: 735.8

1

2

3

4

5

7. 1110´30 ¾ 8 266.4
8. () .

18000 2

¾ 2 36
9.. ( 15 .) 90 . ¾ 8.4 / 11.3
1 9 ..: 1049.5
10. (10% ) ¾ ¾ ¾ 105
: 1154.5

( 2 .):

2309

: q = Q/24 = 2309/24 = 96.2 3/.

3. .

, .

- , ( 10-15 . ). . , .

- , . , , . .

( ). . , .

.

, - , , . , .

, . , .

.

, .

, . , 500 , . 10-15 .

, , 3 : - , - - .

, . . .

, ( ) .

- .

.

:

    ;

    -10 -20;

    .

96.2 3/ , .

, ( 2.04.02-84) - :

    : 200 /3 150-200 /3 ( );

    -: 1-2 /3 ( ), 200-300 /3 150-200 /3 .

- , , -3 .

, -, (-10, -50 .). .

.

1- ;

2-;

3--;

4-;

5--;

6- .


.

89 25 , . , 1991/92 , .

.

, . .

.


-


- .

MS Office 1975 1997 .. , :

-   ;

-   ;

-   ;

-   ;

-   .

. .

, EXCEL .


1.  2.04.03-85 . .; ,1986 .;

2.  . .; , , 1981 .;

3.  ., .. , .. ; , , 1968 .;

4.  . ., .. , .. ; , , 1995 .;

5.  . ., .., .. , -, 1994 .;

6.  . ., .. , .. ; -, 1994 .;

7.  . ., .. , .. ; , 1978 .;

8.  . ., .. , .. , .. ; -, 1991 ;

9.  . ., .. , .. , .. ; -, 1992 ;

10. . .  .., ..; , 1988 .;

11. ., .. .; , , 1977 .;

12. . ., .. , .. , .. ; , 1983 .

13.- . ., .. , .. ; , 1985 .;

14.- . ., .., -, 1992 .;

15.C III-4-80 . .

16. - ., .. ; , , 1970 .;

17. . .

18. - ., .. ;

19. 2.09.04-87 .;

20. II-4-79 .;

21. 2.04.01-85 .;

22. 245-71 .;

23. 12.3.006-75* . .;

24. 12.1.003-83 . .;

25. .4 . . 1; , , 1987 .;

26. .2 . . 1; , , 1987 .;

27. . .; .., ..; , 1988 .;

28. .; , , 1969 ;

29. 12.4.026-76 ..


 
2012 , , .